Angostura Battlefield

Angostura Battlefield

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Angostura Battlefield in Mexico is the location of an important clash in the Mexican-American War.

History of Angostura Battlefield

The battle occurred on February 23, 1847 near the town of Angostura: American forces under the command of General Zachary Taylor. had invaded north-eastern Mexico, taking Monterrey and Saltillo. Mexican forces commanded by General Antonio López de Santa Anna marched north from San Luis Potosi to fight the invaders. The forces clashed outside the town of Angostura, and despite being massively outnumbered, heavy American artillery fire saw off the Mexican defence. The Mexican army suffered a heavy defeat and retreated, dispirited, during the night

Angostura Battlefield today

Today a small memorial marking this important battle can be seen just off the main road in Angostura. There is also a museum dedicated to the battle in nearby Saltillo.

Getting to Angostura Battlefield

The battlefield memorial lies just south west of Saltillo, off Ruta 54. It’s most easily accessed by car, although you could get a taxi, colectivo or bus from Saltillo.

Dade Battlefield Historic State Park

Dade Battlefield Historic State Park is a state park located on County Road 603 between Interstate 75 (Exit 314) and U.S. Route 301 in Sumter County, Florida. The 80-acre (32 ha) park includes 40 acres (160,000 m 2 ) of pine flatwoods and a live oak hammock. Also called the Dade Massacre site, it preserves the Second Seminole War battlefield where tribal Seminole warriors fought soldiers under the command of Major Francis L. Dade on December 28, 1835. Each year, on the weekend after Christmas (as close to the original date as possible), the Dade Battlefield Society sponsors a reenactment of the battle that started the Second Seminole War.

Under the title of Dade Battlefield Historic Memorial, it is also a United States National Historic Landmark (designated as such on April 14, 1972). [1] [2]


Agent Kuykendall was infuriated when a medical report revealed that Camarena had not been killed at the ranch, and he also disputed the report that the five killed gunmen were cartel members with automatic weapons. Instead, it was revealed that the father of the family had been a local congressman who was a thorn in the side for the PRI, and there were no assault weapons at the ranch. Kuykendall suspected a cover-up from Mexico City, and he told Ambassador John Gavin and DEA Administrator John C. Lawn that a corrupt conspiracy of Mexican cops, the DFS, and higher-ups in the capital was responsible for Camarena's death. Lawn decided to speak to the Attorney General immediately after the meeting, as he swore to deal with the situation as soon as possible.

It happened between February 22 and 23, 1847 at a place called Puerto de la Angostura, near the city of Saltillo in Coahuila state. Despite the years, it is still a matter of controversy due to the sudden removal of General Santa Ana before an imminent victory by the Mexican Army.

It is considered the result of a tactical draw and the dissolution of the army of Zachary Taylor the latter to reinforce the troops of General Winfield Scott who lead the second wave of the invasion.

The Museum of the Battle of Angostura tries to rescue (in a very general way, as a tribute) the memory of all those Mexican soldiers killed in action, and offers a rich display of objects found at the site of La Angostura (where the battle took place) and many informative details regarding this part of Mexican history.

Open Tuesday to Saturday from 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Free admission.

Photo Gallery

Museo de la Batalla de la Angostura Museo de la Batalla de la Angostura Museo de la Batalla de la Angostura Museo de la Batalla de la Angostura Museo de la Batalla de la Angostura

Angostura Battlefield - History

The American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP) promotes the preservation of significant historic battlefields associated with wars on American soil. The goals of the program are 1) to protect battlefields and sites associated with armed conflicts that influenced the course of our history, 2) to encourage and assist all Americans in planning for the preservation, management, and interpretation of these sites, and 3) to raise awareness of the importance of preserving battlefields and related sites for future generations. The ABPP focuses primarily on land use, cultural resource and site management planning, and public education.

Battlefield Interpretation Grants

New 2021 grants for projects that employ technology to enhance battlefield interpretation and education

NEW Battlefield Restoration Grants

Coming Spring 2021, new grants to restore landscapes to day-of-battle conditions. Stay tuned!

Angostura Battlefield - History

When a brand seeks to achieve household-name status, there isn’t a specific blueprint to follow. There are countless brands to emulate like Coca-Cola and Tabasco, but when does a company officially make the transition from category leader to the industry standard?

If Angostura isn’t the brand most associated with bitters, it sure is the closest one to it. Between the name’s recognition factor, a history steeped in tradition and its considerable market share throughout the world, Angostura is to bitters what A1 is to steak sauce and Morton is to table salt.

And According to Alex Thomas, senior manager of exports for Angostura, the company is ready to accept that lofty status.

“Personally, I would like to see Angostura® aromatic bitters be to bartenders what brands like Coke and Pepsi represent to everyone,” he says. “We will continue to expand and make an iconic reach that will revolutionize the cocktail industry. We want it to be one of the most-loved ingredients in the bar and in the kitchen.”

Angostura certainly has plenty of credibility to transition to this next level in the beverage sector. The company’s history dates back to 1824 and, today, Angostura is distributed to more than 140 countries, boasting the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom as its largest markets.

Angostura recently penetrated India as well, and Thomas says the country has the potential to become one of the company’s largest markets. Along with official distribution networks in these regions, Thomas says Angostura can be found in numerous countries without official representation as consumers take it upon themselves to share the bitters.

Family History

Dr. Johann Gottlieb Benjamin Siegert is the man who first mixed the elixir that would become Angostura® aromatic bitters. Siegert left his homeland of Germany in 1820 for Venezuela to join Simon Bolivar in his fight against Spanish occupation. Siegert was appointed surgeon-general of the military hospital in the town of Angostura.

In 1824, while searching for a cure for the severe fevers and stomach disorders the soldiers endured during battle, Siegert concocted a blend of herbs he called “armargo aromatico,” or aromatic bitters.

After testing the blend’s affects on the patients as well as family and friends, Siegert moved on to the seamen at the ports who complained of seasickness when docking on the banks of the Orinoco River. Word about Angostura® aromatic bitters soon spread throughout the world, inspiring Siegert to explore commercial production of his formula.

In 1830, Siegert began exporting his bitters to England and Trinidad and by 1850 he had resigned from the Venezuelan army to concentrate on the manufacture of his bitters. Siegert’s son Carlos joined the business in 1867 and took over when Siegert died in 1870. Carlos’ brother Alfredo joined the company in 1872 and it was renamed Dr. J.G.B. Siegert & Hijos.

The pair moved operations to Trinidad to escape the political unrest that beset Venezuela. Carlos Siegert took the torch from his father and began exhibiting the product in person as early as 1862, starting in London where it was applauded with gin, making the popular drink “Pink Gin.” He then moved on to Paris in 1867, Vienna in 1873, Philadelphia in 1876 and Australia in 1879.

It was during this time that the use of bitters expanded into the realm of drinks and food. The unique flavors possessed by Angostura® aromatic bitters, as well as its uncanny ability to marry and complement ingredients in food and cocktail recipes made it universally popular, the company says.

In fact, much of the history of the “cocktail culture” in the United States is rooted in the history of Angostura® aromatic bitters. Jerry Thomas, often revered as “the Father of American Mixology” coined the first published definition of the cocktail as “a stimulating liquor, composed of spirits of any kind, sugar, water and bitters,” according to Angostura. Angostura® aromatic bitters quickly became the bitters of choice to qualify that definition.

Still a Mystery

Although Angostura’s bitters have been around for more than 180 years, the elixir itself remains unknown amongst even some of the most experienced consumers. There still exists a general lack of knowledge about what the product is used for and how to use it.

“Bitters is such a mysterious product, many anecdotes have been created about it over the years” Thomas says. “It creates quite a bit of a story.”

The name “Angostura” actually comes from the town in Venezuela where it was first developed. It’s amusing that even today people still mispronounce the name, Thomas says.

Angostura must educate the masses on how to best use bitters in food and drink recipes. Thomas says consumers are afraid to use bitters liberally, so the company has launched a campaign to teach the basics of how to use bitters properly. Angostura® aromatic bitters naturally enhances the flavors of ingredients in cocktails and meals alike, as well as, adding its own deep and complex flavor. “We’re doing a lot around education on bitters,” he says. “We’re doing a lot of analysis on what bitters can best be paired with and the actual product’s features and functions. We often refer to the project as the science of bitters.” One way the company will get the word out is through an interactive website that will be launched later in 2011.

The Advancement of Rum

Although the Siegert family made Angostura famous for its bitters, they brought plenty of rum-making experience with them when they relocated operations to Trinidad. The company once produced the signature blend called Siegert’s Bouguet Rum, which was infused with bitters.

By 1900, the company had entered the rum market by bottling bulk rum from other distillers. After years of intensive research in fermentation and distillation, Angostura purchased Trinidad Distiller’s Ltd. and installed a state-of-the art distillery in 1945 to produce rum on a commercial scale. By 1960, the rebranded Angostura Ltd. rum division was distributing product in more than 140 countries.

In 1973, the company extended its reach in the rum market by purchasing a well-known distillery owned by the Portuguese businessman, J.B. Fernandes. This acquisition added to its rum portfolio such traditional brands as Fernandes Vat 19, Fernandes Black Label and Ferdi’s Premium rum.

Angostura has steadily increased its overall distillation and storage capacity in Trinidad, with production levels rising from 1.3 million liters in 1960 to 20 million liters in 1998. The company’s capacity grew to 50 million liters by 2000, with more than 95 percent of Angostura’s rum exported throughout the world.

Today, Angostura’s primary rum portfolio includes brands such as:

Angostura 1824 Limited Reserve – This is a blend of mature rums hand-picked by the master blender from select casks. These rums are aged in charred American oak bourbon barrels for at least 12 years, and then hand blended and re-casked.

Angostura 1919 – This is an añejo made from a blend of light and heavy molasses-based rums. This brand is aged for a minimum of eight years but up to a maximum of 10 in charred American oak bourbon barrels.

Angostura® Reserva White – A premium white rum that has been twice filtered through charcoal to remove any impurities. Angostura® Reserva is extraordinarily light and creamy making it ideal for mixing, and is exceptionally smoother and fuller in flavor than other white rums.

Angostura® 5 Year Old Gold – A blend of light and medium rums aged for a minimum of five years and distilled in Angostura’s state-of-the-art five-column continuous still. The rum is lightly filtered to remove impurities, but not so much as to alter its inherently rich flavor.

Angostura® 7 Year Old Dark – A blend of light, medium and heavy rums distilled in Angostura’s state-of-the-art five-column continuous still to different intensities before each being matured in hand-selected Bourbon Oak casks for a minimum of seven years.

Angostura® 1824 and Angostura® 1919 have been available globally for the last decade. However, the Reserva, Five Year Old and Seven Year Old varieties only have been in existence for approximately more than three years ago and are now available in 50 markets.

Pushing the rum portfolio is a major part of Angostura’s overall plans for growth. The United States remains one of its fastest-growing markets for its rum products.

“We have had a presence in the United States for a very long time – probably as far back as when the company started,” Thomas says. “Many Trinidadians have migrated to the United States over the many years and for this reason our traditional rums remain very popular in such states as Florida and New York.

“Initially, the demand in the United States for our rum products was driven by our traditional rums,” he adds. “It was a natural evolution from these traditional rums to the premium, aged offerings which now exist.”

Thomas says the originality of the rums is a major draw to Angostura’s products. Trinidadian rum, according to Thomas, is steeped in history and is of a higher quality. Today, Thomas says Angostura possibly accounts for almost 10 percent of the world demand for aged rum.

“The quality of rum is very much more of a high standard compared to other countries,” he says. “In fact, we are one of the largest bulk suppliers of aged Caribbean rum in the world.”

Angostura possesses the largest distillery in the entire English-speaking Caribbean with a distillation capacity of 50 million liters annually.

Angostura hopes to become one of the major players in the global rum category over the next five to 10 years, Thomas says. “We’re well-respected for the quality of our rums, and we have many independent contracts with many major players in various markets around the world,” he adds. “We want to extend that respect alongside our branded rum efforts.”

Keeping a Premium

With the world economy experiencing a recession, many consumers are taking a closer look at their social budgets, and that includes what they spend on alcohol. While other spirit brands may lower price points to cater to this new reality, Thomas says Angostura remains dedicated to its premium status and customers will find a way to appreciate the quality of its rums despite the economic climate.

“I think the world economy presents a lot of challenges for premium products at the moment,” Thomas says. “The race we are in is for premium-quality aged rums. There is not much market for standard rums, and a lot of markets are still dominated by local standard brands.”

Despite the dip in the global economy in late 2008, Angostura remained committed to essential brand building activities, and ensured in this way that there was never a loss of attention to their brands.

“One of the lessons we’ve learned is, even in tough times, it pays to be active,” Thomas explains. “We don’t discount, rather we create value for our consumers and customers through attractive rewards for purchasing our products.”

However, with the economy showing signs of recovery recently, the demand for premium rum is coming back.

“What we see now, though, is some sort of normalcy, and a lot of consumers are resuming a willingness to experiment,” Thomas believes. “That puts us at an advantage as one of the newer brands with a good package and a good product.”

Engaging Customers

The company hosts its annual Angostura® aromatic bitters Global Cocktail Challenge in Trinidad. This year’s contest drew bartender contestants from nine countries, and the contest’s final competition was held in Port of Spain, Trinidad.

Contestants were charged with creating two original cocktails, both of which featured Angostura® aromatic bitters as an ingredient. One of the cocktails had to use Angostura rum, while the second was “freestyle,” where the competitor could choose and combination of ingredients along with bitters. The nine finalists from around the world competed for a grand prize of $10,000 and a year-long contract as Angostura’s global brand ambassador.

The finalists of the competition were flown to Trinidad in March 2011 for the championship round and while in town, the bartenders were treated to tours of the bitters museum, the rum distillery and the unique experience of participating in Trinidad’s famous Carnival parades, the company says.

This year’s winner is Andy Griffiths, a New Zealand native who works at the famous bar Cookie in Melbourne, Australia. According to Angostura, Griffiths created “The Scarlet Ibis” and the “Orinoco Flip.”

Thomas says the competition not only brings attention of Angostura’s products to the consumers, but to the chefs and bartenders who might use the products in their own creations. It also shows this segment of their core audience that Angostura is interested in how its bitters and rums affect their business.

“The competition creates a role for us in their lives,” he adds. “We want to not just be seen as functional, but we want to play a role in the lives of our audience, bartenders and cooks.”

Angostura Battlefield - History

Battles in History: 1800 - 1899

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Angostura Battlefield - History

Two revolutions in 1917 changed Russia for good. How the Russians switched from Empire to the Bolshevik Peace, Land, and Bread government:

Greco-Persian Wars
Also called the Persian Wars, the Greco-Persian Wars were fought for almost half a century from 492 to 449 BC. Greece won against enormous odds. Here is more:

Mexico's transition from dictatorship to constitutional republic translated into ten messy years of skirmishing in Mexican history.

More from the Mexican Revolution:

Voyages in History
When did what vessel arrive with whom onboard and where did it sink if it didn't?

The greatest of all Barbarian rulers, Attila kicked rear on a large scale.

Clara Barton (The Angel of the Battlefield)

Most people remember Clara Barton as the founder of the American Red Cross and an independent Civil War nurse. During the war she maintained a home in Washington, DC, but traveled with the Union Army, providing care and relief services to the wounded on many battlefields. The significance of the work she performed during and immediately after the war cannot be overstated.

Patent Office Clerk
Born in Massachusetts in 1821, Clara Barton moved to Washington, DC in 1854. There she worked as a clerk in the U. S. Patent Office from 1854 to 1857, the first woman to receive a substantial clerkship in the federal government. Her $1,400 annual salary was the same as that of the male clerks. Secretary of the Interior Robert McClelland did not like women working in government offices and reduced Barton to a copyist with a pay rate of 10 cents for each 100 words.

Her position was eliminated when Democratic President James Buchanan was elected in 1856. She then returned to Massachusetts, where she lived with family and friends for several years. When Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, Barton returned to her former position as a copyist at the Patent Office.

Riot at Baltimore
Clara Barton was working as a recording clerk in the U.S. Patent Office in Washington, DC when the Civil War began on April 12, 1861. On April 19, 1861 soldiers of the 6th Massachusetts Infantry were attacked by Southern sympathizers in Baltimore, Maryland. The injured were taken to the new U.S. Capitol building in nearby Washington, DC, and Barton rushed from the Patent Office to the makeshift hospital to tend the wounded.

In the midst of all this chaos Barton saw the need for personal assistance to the men in uniform, some of whom were wounded or hungry, others without bedding or any clothing except what was on their backs. She gathered food, medicine and other supplies from her own household to distribute to the soldiers, then solicited friends from Massachusetts, New York and New Jersey to send needed items.

The response to her request for supplies for the troops was overwhelming, and she quickly learned how to store and distribute them. This marked the start of her career as a Civil War nurse and relief worker, but she never formally affiliated with any agency or group. Barton also offered personal support to the men in hopes of keeping their spirits up: she read to them, wrote letters for them, listened to their problems and prayed with them.

Relief on the Front Lines
Barton knew, however, that she was needed most on the battlefields where the suffering was greatest. She prodded leaders in the government and the army until she was given permission to bring her voluntary services and medical supplies to the scenes of battle and field hospitals on August 3, 1862.

Following the battle of Cedar Mountain in northern Virginia later that month, she appeared at a field hospital at midnight with a wagonload of supplies drawn by a four-mule team. The surgeon on duty later wrote: "I thought that night if heaven ever sent out a[n]. angel, she must be one - her assistance was so timely." Thereafter she was known as theAngel of the Battlefield.

Throughout the war, Barton and her supply wagons traveled with the Union army, giving aid to Union casualties and Confederate prisoners - at the Second Battle of Bull Run, Chantilly, Harper's Ferry and South Mountain. Transportation was provided by the army quartermaster but most of the supplies were purchased with donations solicited by Barton or by her own funds. (She was later reimbursed by Congress for her expenses.)

At Antietam
Barton was never satisfied with remaining with medical units at the rear of the column - hours or even days away from a fight. At the bloody Battle of Antietam (September 1862), she ordered the drivers of her supply wagons to follow the cannon and traveled all night. By the time of her arrival at about noon on September 17, Barton surgeons had run out of bandages, and were trying to wrap soldiers' wounds with corn husks.

Barton brought up her three army wagons loaded with bandages and other medical supplies. and organized able-bodied men to perform first aid, carry water and prepare food for the wounded. While the battle raged, she and her helpers brought relief and hope to soldiers on the field. In the face of danger, she wrote:

I always tried. to succor the wounded until medical aid and supplies could come up - I could run the risk it made no difference to anyone if I were shot or taken prisoner.

As bullets whizzed overhead and artillery boomed in the distance, Barton cradled the heads of suffering soldiers. When darkness fell, she set up lanterns, also from her supply wagons, which enabled the army's medical personnel to work through the night.

At Fredericksburg
In December 1862, Clara Barton cared for the wounded from the Battle of Fredericksburg at the Lacy House (also known as Chatham). She again brought supplies and was assigned a room in the house where on December 11 she watched the bombardment of the town from the second floor. As wounded men were brought into the house, she comforted soldiers from both sides. She recorded some of her experiences there in her diary.

She spent most of the following day at the Lacy House which had become a hospital for the Union II Corps. Since the doctors were too busy to keep medical records during battle, she wrote in her diary the names of the men who died at Chatham and where they were buried. The heaviest fighting of the battle occurred on December 13, and she spent most of that day in Fredericksburg, surrounded by thousands of wounded Union soldiers.

Returning to Chatham, she spent the next two weeks there, where the wounded occupied every room of the house and "covered every foot of the floors and porticos." She wrote that they lay on the shelves of a cupboard, the stair landings and a man "thought himself rich" if he laid under a table where he would not be stepped on.

Still the 12,000 square-foot building did not contain enough space to hold all the wounded of the II Corps. Many were placed on blankets in the muddy yard, where Barton set up a soup kitchen in a tent to help these wounded soldiers, as they shivered in the cold December air, waiting for someone inside to die and make room for them.

In South Carolina
In April 1863, Clara Barton traveled to the Union controlled coastal regions around Charleston, South Carolina. At Hilton Head Island, she visited her brother Captain David Barton, an Army Quartermaster, and her fifteen year old nephew Steven Barton, who was serving in the military telegraph office. She also met and befriended Colonel John J. Elwell, with whom she supposedly had a romantic affair.

The following month Miss Barton met Frances Dana Gage, and together they worked to educate former slaves and prepare them for their life beyond bondage. Barton recorded in her diary that through Gage she had developed an interest in the growing movement for equal rights among women and African Americans.

At Fort Wagner
On July 14, 1863 Barton moved from Hilton Head to Morris Island in Charleston harbor. On July 18, she witnessed the horrendous attack on Fort Wagner, South Carolina by the African American soldiers of the 54th Massachusetts, one of the first official African American units in the war. The 1st South Carolina Volunteers (Union) of this regiment had been recruited from freed slaves from the area.

They were led by a colonel named Robert Gould Shaw who appeared even younger than his 25 years. When the soldiers were about 150 yards from the fort, the Confederates opened up with cannon and small arms which tore through the ranks of the 54th Massachusetts, killing Shaw and many African American soldiers. Barton wrote:

I can never forget the patient bravery with which they endured their wounds received in the cruel assault upon Wagner, as hour after hour they lay in the wet sands, just back of the growling guns waiting their turn for the knife or the splint and bandage, not a murmur, scarce a groan, but ever that patient upturning of the great dark eyes, to your face, in utter silence, which kept one constantly wondering if they knew all they had done, and were doing? and whenever I met one who was giving his life out with his blood, I could not forbear hastening to tell him lest he die in ignorance of the truth, that he was the soldier of Freedom he had sought to be, and that the world as well as Heaven would so record it.

Barton helped to establish field hospitals and distributed supplies to Union soldiers after the failed siege at Charleston. In the process, Barton herself became gravely ill and was evacuated to Hilton Head island. In January 1864, she returned to Washington, DC, to collect supplies and to

In Virginia
In May 1864, after the Battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House near Fredericksburg, Virginia, Miss Barton arranged for the opening of private homes for the care of wounded. Fredericksburg continued to be an important hospital and logistical center for the Union Army, as wounded poured in from the battles of General Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign that spring and summer.

Also in May 1864, General Benjamin Butler began to construct his main defensive line shortly after landing at the town of Bermuda Hundred, Virginia. While Grant advanced toward the Confederate capital of Richmond from the north, Butler's Army of the James was to threaten that city from the east, but he was eventually stopped by Confederate forces under General P.G.T. Beauregard.

In June 1864, General Butler placed Miss Barton in charge of diet and nursing at the X Corps hospital near Point of Rocks, a plantation home that served as Butler's headquarters during the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. At this field hospital, Barton cared for the wounded from the almost daily fighting that occurred during the Seige of Petersburg.

Missing Soldiers Office
In January 1865, Barton returned to Washington, DC. Information Barton had recorded about her 'soldier boys' during the war and the regiments to which they belonged left her with a wealth of data about Civil War soldiers. Toward the end of the war, she began writing to families who inquired about soldiers who had been reported missing.

In March, President Abraham Lincoln appointed her General Correspondent for the Friends of Paroled Prisoners. Her job was to locate missing soldiers and respond to inquiries from the grieving friends and relatives of these lost men. She established the Bureau of Records of Missing Men of the Armies of the United States and employed twelve clerks to assist her in this monumental task.

She and her assistants responded to more than 63,000 letters from families searching for lost sons and husbands and friends, most of which required some kind of research. This eventually led to the publication of Rolls of Missing Men that were posted across the country so that anyone with knowledge of their whereabouts or death could contact her. By 1868 the had identified more than 22,000 missing soldiers, but many more remained unaccounted for.

In her gutsy final report to the the 40th U.S. Congress in 1869 Clara Barton wrote:

It is now nearly four years since the cessation of active hostilities, and from the best information accessible to me I am led to believe that a large number, perhaps 40,000, once enlisted in our armies remain to this day unaccounted for. As there can be no motive for prolonged concealment, it is a reasonable presumption that those of whom no trace has yet been found have perished through the casualties and hardships of war. In most instances pay or bounty in some form must have been due their families at the time of their disappearance. It is well known that until recently the accounting officers of the treasury refused to settle with such families without evidence of the date of death.

With a view, therefore, of remedying any defect in the existing laws upon the subject, and of removing any uncertainty or propriety of adopting a resolution similar in substance to the following:

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives in Congress assembled, That hereafter all persons who served in the army or navy during the war for the suppression of the rebellion, and who are now borne upon the rolls of their respective commands as missing or unknown, and of whom no traces have yet been found, shall be considered as having died in the line of duty, and their legal heirs and representatives, upon proper proof of their being so recorded, shall be entitled to the bounties, back pay and pension the same as if they had been otherwise accounted for.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

In 1869, her search for soldiers complete, Barton's doctor advised her to travel to Europe to restore her health. While in Switzerland, she learned about the Red Cross organization that had been established in Geneva in 1864. In 1880 the American Red Cross was established, the culmination of a decade of work by Barton. She served as the organization's first president until 1904 and worked as a volunteer in Cuba during the Spanish-American War (1898).

Clara Barton died in 1912, at the age of 90, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland.

In 1996, Richard Lyons, a carpenter for the General Services Administration (GSA), discovered the sign for Clara Barton's Missing Soldiers Office and other artifacts in the attic after the building on 7th street, NW was scheduled for demolition. This is where Barton lived during and immediately after the Civil War, stored the supplies she received for her work on the battlefields, and later as an office to handle correspondence concerning missing soldiers.

As a result of the discovery, the building was preserved and GSA retained an easement for planned museum use. Restoration work on the space started in 2012. A welcome center will be opened on the first floor of the building, and the third floor, where Clara lived and worked. The museum also plans to create the Clara Barton Institute to offer training in her philosophy and how it applies to today's medical relief efforts. It is projected to be open by the end of 2013.

I have never been a huge Clara Barton fan because she was such an avid self-promoter, but by focusing only on her work during the Civil War, I have come to a new appreciation of the woman. Maybe this quote from a 1994 New York Times review of the book A Woman of Valor: Clara Barton and the Civil War by Stephen B. Oates says it all:

During this and many other battles, we witness Clara Barton, the American Florence Nightingale, setting up candle lanterns so that the surgeons could amputate all night, or ladling out mouthfuls of soup so that the dying could relieve their thirst, or distributing crackers to the starving or cloaks and blankets to the cold. These were among the ways she tried to improve the odds of the wounded and mitigate the agony of the doomed. We watch her pause to hold a man as he slips into unconsciousness, then bend down to another as he whispers a plea that she write to his mother to report his dying devotion. Eventually we follow her to Andersonville, the notorious Confederate prison camp in Georgia, where, after the war, she led the effort to identify the Union dead.

Native Americans score victory at the Battle of the Rosebud

Sioux and Cheyenne Native Americans score a tactical victory over General Crook’s forces at the Battle of the Rosebud, foreshadowing the disaster of the Battle of the Little Big Horn eight days later.

General George Crook was in command of one of three columns of soldiers converging on the Big Horn country of southern Montana that June. A large band of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians under the direction of Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, and several other chiefs had congregated in the area in defiance of U.S. demands that the Native Americans confine themselves to reservations. The army viewed the tribes’ refusal as an opportunity to dispatch a massive three-pronged attack.

Crook’s column, marching north from Fort Fetterman in Wyoming Territory, was to join with two others: General Gibbon’s column coming east from Fort Ellis in Montana Territory, and General Terry’s force coming west from Fort Abraham Lincoln in Dakota Territory. Terry’s force included the soon-to-be-famous 7th Cavalry under the command of George Custer. The vast distances and lack of reliable communications made it difficult to coordinate, but the three armies planned to converge on the valley of the Big Horn River and stage an assault on an enemy whose location and size was only vaguely known.

The plan quickly ran into trouble. As Crook approached the Big Horn, his scouts informed him they had found signs of a major Sioux force that must still be nearby. Crook was convinced that the Sioux were encamped in a large village somewhere along the Rosebud Creek just east of the Big Horn. Like most of his fellow officers, Crook believed that Indians were more likely to flee than stand and fight, and he was determined to find the village and attack before the Sioux could escape into the wilderness. Crook’s allies� Crow and Shoshone warriors—were less certain. They suspected the Sioux force was under the command of Crazy Horse, thee brilliant war chief. Crazy Horse, they warned, was too shrewd to give Crook an opportunity to attack a stationary village.

Crook soon learned that his allies were right. Around 8 a.m. on June 17, 1876, Crook halted his force of about 1,300 men in the bowl of a small valley along the Rosebud Creek in order to allow the rear of the column to catch up. Crook’s soldiers unsaddled and let their horses graze while they relaxed in the grass and enjoyed the cool morning air. The American soldiers were out in the open, divided, and unprepared. Suddenly, several Indian scouts rode into the camp at a full gallop. “Sioux! Sioux!” they shouted. “Many Sioux!” Within minutes, a mass of Sioux warriors began to converge on the army.

A force of at least 1,500 mounted Sioux warriors caught Crook’s soldiers by surprise. Crazy Horse had kept an additional 2,500 warriors in reserve to finish the attack. Fortunately for Crook, one segment of his army was not caught unprepared. His 262 Crow and Shoshone allies had taken up advanced positions about 500 yards from the main body of soldiers. With astonishing courage, the Indian warriors boldly countercharged the much larger invading force. They managed to blunt the initial attack long enough for Crook to regroup his men and send soldiers forward to support his Indian allies. The fighting continued until noon, when the Sioux-perhaps hoping to draw Crook’s army into an ambush—retreated from the field.

The combined force of 4,000 Sioux warriors had outnumbered Crook’s divided and unprepared army by more than three to one. Had it not been for the wisdom and courage of Crook’s allies, Americans today might well remember the Battle of the Rosebud as they do the subsequent Battle of the Little Big Horn. As it was, Crook’s team was badly bloodied� men were killed and 56 were seriously wounded.

Crook had no choice but to withdraw and regroup. Crazy Horse had lost only 13 men and his warriors were emboldened by their successful attack on the American soldiers. Eight days later, they would join with their tribesmen in the Battle of the Little Big Horn, which would wipe out George Custer and his 7th Cavalry.

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