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Peru History - History of Peru
What we know of the early Peru history is a result of the many important Peruvian archaeology finds. Its history covers a few thousand years from early or ancient times up to the present.
Preview - Peruvian history can be broken down into 5 major periods:
For countless centuries before the invasion of Spanish adventurer and European culture, Peru was the home to an amazing number of advanced cultures and civilizations.
Here we discuss the major stages of the history of Peru to arrive at its current modern and bustling society with all its progress and improvements as well as it problems and challenges.
- According to some, lithics found in the caves of Pikimachay, Chivateros, Lauricocha, Paiján, and Toquepala provide the evidence for the date. 
- The oldest securely dated remains appear in 10000 BCE in the Guitarrero Cave, Yungay, then in the coast (in the districts Chilca and Paracas) and in the highlands (in the Callejón de Huaylas).
- 3000 years later (7000 BCE), people became sedentary (Jisk'a Iru Muqu, Kotosh, Huaca Prieta) so they began to cultivate plants such as gourds and cotton (Gossypium barbadense). These early crops were mainly industrial, and were used in fishing. The cotton was used to make nets and lines, while the gourds were used as floats. Larger, more complex societies formed around 3000 BCE, and this is now known as the Cotton Preceramic Period, which was part of the Andean preceramic period. These early societies focused on the gathering of marine resources and did not rely on maize, as later civilizations did. Subsequent technical developments include innovations in spinning and knitting of cotton and wool. There is also evidence for some basketry, and metalwork (gold beads) during this period. Pottery developed in the Amazon Basin and spread to the Andean culture region around 4000 years ago. The period that ensued is now called the Initial or Ceramic. Maize was adopted as a staple crop, creating population growth because of its high carrying capacity. The population distribution moved from the coasts to river valleys because of the growing importance of farming. , northern Peru, irrigationcanals have been dated to 5400 and 6700 years ago (3400 BCE and 4700 BCE) and show communal work. 
- A frieze at the Sechin Bajo site of the Casma/Sechin culture has been dated to 3600 BCE, the oldest monument found in Peru.  (Also known as the Caral-Supe civilization, nearly from 3,500 BCE to 1,800 BCE)"  , a Late Preceramic cite in the Lima region (3500-1800 BC) , 4200-year-old observatory, Lima Region (2200 BCE) , 4000-year-old temple, Lambayeque Region, northern Peru (2000 BCE) culture (1500-1000 BCE) (900 BCE to 200 BCE)
These cultures developed advanced techniques of cultivation, gold and silver work, pottery, metallurgy and weaving. Some of the social structures that later (around the 12th century) formed the base of the Inca Empire may be traced back to these previous periods.
Archaeologists led by Gabriel Prieto revealed the largest mass child sacrifice with more than 140 children skeleton and 200 Llamas dating to the Chimú culture after he was informed about some children had found bones in a dune nearby Prieto’s fieldwork in 2011.  
According to the researchers' notes in the study, there was cut marks on the sterna, or breastbones some of the children and the llamas. Children’s faces were smeared with a red pigment during the ceremony before their chests had been cut open, most likely to remove their hearts.Remains showed that these kids came from different regions and when the children and llamas were sacrificed, the area was drenched with water. 
“We have to remember that the Chimú had a very different world view than Westerners today. They also had very different concepts about death and the role each person plays in the cosmos, perhaps the victims went willingly as messengers to their gods, or perhaps Chimú society believed this was the only way to save more people from destruction” said anthropologists Ryan Williams. 
6 AD-500 AD
Greater Polynesian Expansion
Following the first polynesian migration from easter island, a second migration came from the Galapagos. This migration saw polynesian invasions of the Olmec Empire, creating small states in modern day Nicarao province of the FRCA. They also migrated towards north america, where they brought agriculture and disease. They pillaged across the continent and formed one of the largest ancient empires known that spanned from California to New York. It is said that this feat was accomplished through superior technology, tributary systems, playing tribes against each other, the use of domesticated llamas from South America as steeds, and the introduction of diseases through the polynesian rat to much of the population. They also expanded into the Caribbean, where they formed similar societies to ones they had in the Pacific. The few surviving tribes melded with the polynesian invaders until the original polynesian cultures that invaded were completely changed. The Empire splintered into the Sioux/Lakota, Apache, Comanche, Pawnee, Iriquois, Algonquin, and Chumash nations.
Nazca Coastal Culture in Western South America
The Nazca (or Nasca) is the name of the archeological culture that flourished in the southern coast of Peru between 100 BC and 650 AD. The Nazca coastal culture in Western South America is recorded on the Bible Timeline Chart with World History between 400 BC – 1000 AD. It was named after the Rio Grande de Nasca and located between the Ica and Nasca valleys. The Nazcas were related to the earlier Paracas culture which played a significant role in the development of their society as seen in both cultures’ art and religion.
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The weather in this coastal area was influenced by the Humboldt current which would bring fog but kept the area a dry sub-tropical desert. The Nazca people depended on agriculture, but the land was particularly prone to droughts, earthquakes, and flooding. They still managed to produce corn, beans, manioc, potatoes, sweet potatoes, peppers, and squash which became their staple foods. Cotton and wool from llamas and other highland animals were sources for textiles and were used for trade with other people. The Pacific Ocean was a good source of seals, fishes, and other seafood.
The Nazca people traded with other communities in Peru including the coastal Camaná province grave goods identified as Nazca were found at cemeteries in the area. The use of wool from llamas and other highland animals were also present in Nazca sites. There were also feathers of rain forest birds that decorated the headdress of Nazca mummies.
Their villages were clustered from the Cañete Valley to Acari Valley with Nazca at its center. These villages were led by chieftains who were united through their religion, but there is no evidence of an important ruler or a central government. The chieftains served as shamans as well as warriors. Their depictions can frequently be seen on colorful Nazca pottery. They led Nazca rituals and usually used hallucinogenic drugs that were common in Peruvian culture. These drugs were derived from the San Pedro cactus (mescaline) and Angel’s trumpet tree.
Religion played a big part in the lives of the Nazca people, especially when they lived in an area that was prone to the above listed natural disasters. They also believed in animatism. These supernatural forces were evident in their ceramic arts. These had colorful depictions of mythological creatures that were believed to control their food and water supplies. The prominent religious center of the Nazca people was located in the Cahuachi, where remnants of pyramid temples can be found. It first served as a pilgrimage and burial site until it was used as a mortuary and offering area.
The most enduring legacy of the Nazca culture was the geoglyphs in Pampa de San Jose. These mysterious glyphs of unknown purposes were drawn on the desert surface to reveal the lighter soil underneath. The drawings vary from simple lines to a complicated representation of animals including a pelican, monkey, killer whale, hummingbird, and more. Whether it was for astronomical purposes or to indicate past water sources, the reason for the existence of these glyphs is still a mystery.
Ancient Civilization Cut Path to Demise
The ancient South American Nasca civilization may have caused its own demise by clear-cutting huge swaths of forest, a new study has found.
The civilization disappeared mysteriously around 1,500 years ago, after apparently prospering during the first half of the first millennium A.D. in the valleys of south coastal Peru. Scientists have previously suggested a massive El Niño event disrupted the climate and caused the Nasca's demise, but new research suggests that deforestation may have also played an important role.
The Nasca are best known for leaving behind large geoglyphs called Nazca lines carved into the surface of the vast, empty desert plain that lies between the Peruvian towns of Nazca and Palpa. Though the lines have spawned many interpretations, including the suggestion that they were created by aliens, most scholars now think they were sacred pathways that Nasca people followed during their ancient rituals. The enigmatic society that once flourished apparently collapsed around 500 A.D. after a bloody resource war. To investigate this event a team of archaeologists led by David Beresford-Jones from the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at the U.K.'s Cambridge University gathered plant remains in the lower Ica Valley. Based on this evidence and pollen samples collected by co-researcher Alex Chepstow-Lusty of the French Institute of Andean Studies in Lima, the scientists found that the Nasca cleared huge areas of forest to make way for agriculture. The native huarango tree, which once covered what is now a desert area, was gradually replaced by crops such as cotton and maize. This vital tree was a crucial part of the desert&rsquos fragile ecosystem, serving to enhance soil fertility and moisture and help hold the Nasca&rsquos narrow, vulnerable irrigation channels in place. Eventually, the people cut down so many trees that they reached a tipping point at which the arid ecosystem was irreversibly damaged, the researchers found. At this point a major El Niño event likely occurred, triggering floods made much worse by the lack of forests that used to protect the delicate desert ecology.
"These were very particular forests," Beresford-Jones said. "The huarango is a remarkable nitrogen-fixing tree and it was an important source of food, forage, timber and fuel for the local people. Furthermore, it is the ecological &lsquokeystone&rsquo species in this desert zone, enhancing soil fertility and moisture, ameliorating desert extremes in the microclimate beneath its canopy and underpinning the floodplain with one of the deepest root systems of any tree known. In time, gradual woodland clearance crossed an ecological threshold &mdash sharply defined in such desert environments &mdash exposing the landscape to the region&rsquos extraordinary desert winds and the effects of El Niño floods." Without the huarango cover, when El Niño did strike, the river down-cut into its floodplain, Nasca irrigation systems were damaged and the area became unworkable for agriculture. This finding fits with other evidence that shows that the generations that came afterwards did not fare as well as their predecessors: infant mortality rose, while average adult life expectancy fell. The crops cultivated by their ancestors disappeared in the lower Ica Valley and the area was probably afflicted by a severe drought.
The research also stresses the importance of huarango woodlands for sustaining livelihoods and creating fertile areas in these environments. There are now no undisturbed ecosystems in the region and what remains of the old-growth huarango forests is being destroyed in illegal charcoal-burning operations. "The mistakes of prehistory offer us important lessons for our management of fragile, arid areas in the present," said co-author Oliver Whaley of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, England.
When Did LinkedIn Start?
LinkedIn was one of the first social media sites in history. It was founded on December 28, 2002 by Reid Hoffman, Allen Blue, Konstantin Guericke, Eric Ly, and Jean-Luc Valliant. Initially, it was a site focused on professional networking, allowing people to connect with business and school contacts, as well as companies. Today, this is still the primary purpose of LinkedIn. It has stayed true to that purpose to this day. Currently, LinkedIn has more than 575 million registered users, and it’s ranked number 285 on the Alexa Ranking for most-visited sites.
The Story of Civilization Volume 4: The History of the United States (Timeline Poster)
Children should not just read about history, they should live it. In The Story of Civilization, the stories that have shaped humanity come alive like never before. Author Phillip Campbell uses his historical expertise and story-telling ability together in tandem to present the content in a fresh and thrilling way.
Volume IV: The History of the United States transfers the journey over to the New World. Beginning with Columbus when he sailed the open blue and extending into the present day, this volume tells the thrilling tale of our nation, both the good and the bad. Children will be introduced to heroic American saints like Juan Diego, Peter Claver, and Elizabeth Ann Seton, explorers like Lewis and Clark and Neil Armstrong, and a whole host of US presidents, as well as relive some of the most significant events in our country&rsquos past, like the signing of the Declaration of Independence, the assassination of President Lincoln, the Civil Rights Movement, the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, and many more.
Keeping track of the people, events, and dates that shaped history can be difficult. With this fun, comprehensive, and engaging timeline that employs an easy to follow format and vibrant illustrations, students will have the help they need to track the chronology of the story of civilization.
This timeline mirrors the scope of The Story of Civilization text book, beginning with the early Spanish conquests of Mexico and running to the attacks of 9/11 and presidents Barack Obama and Donald Trump. Within these bookends, children will be introduced to the Spanish conquistadors and missionary martyrs, Juan Diego and Our Lady of Guadalupe, George Washington and the Founding Fathers, "Honest Abe" Lincoln and the abolitionist movement, the terrible wars of the 20th and 21st centuries, and so much more. A fun &ldquoTimeline Trivia&rdquo section can be found on the back for students to test their knowledge!
&bull Laminated format capable of being written on with a sharpie
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&bull Easy to follow structure
&bull 40+ illustrations
&bull Covers over 75 major events and people
&bull &ldquoTimeline Trivia&rdquo on the back
Stretching across the Nazca plains – like a giant map or blueprint left by ancient astronauts, lie the famous Nazca Lines of Peru. It also known as Nazca figures, Nazca Pictures and Nazca Images.
The Nazca Lines are an engima. No one know who had built them or indeed why. Since their discovery, the Nazca Lines have inspired fantastic explanations from ancient gods, a landing strip for returning aliens, a celestial calendar, used for rituals probably related to astronomy, to confirm the ayllus or clans who made up the population and to determine through ritual their economic functions held up by reciprocity and redistribution or, a map of underground water supplies.
There are also huge geoglyphs in Egypt, Malta, United States (Mississippi and California), Chile, Bolivia and in other countries. But the Nazca geoglyphs, because of their numbers, characteristics, dimensions and cultural continuity as they were made and remade through out the whole prehispanic period, form the most impressive as well as enigmatic archeological group.
The Nazca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast which comprises the Pampas of San Jose (Jumana), Socos, El Ingenio and others in the province of Nasca, which is 400 Km. South of Lima, covers an area of approximately 450 km2, of sandy desert as well as the slopes of the contours of the Andes. They cover nearly 400 square miles of desert. Etched in the surface of the desert pampa sand about 300 hundred figures made of straight lines, geometric shapes most clearly visible from the air. They were supposedly built by an ancient civilization called the Nazca.
The Nazca plain is virtually unique for its ability to preserve the markings upon it, due to the combination of the climate (one of the driest on Earth, with only twenty minutes of rainfall per year) and the flat, stony ground which minimises the effect of the wind at ground level. With no dust or sand to cover the plain, and little rain or wind to erode it, lines drawn here tend to stay drawn. These factors, combined with the existence of a lighter-coloured subsoil beneath the desert crust, provide a vast writing pad that is ideally suited to the artist who wants to leave his mark for eternity.
The pebbles which cover the surface of the desert contain ferrous oxide. The exposure of centuries has given them a dark patina. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color, even though in some cases they became prints. In other cases, the stones defining the lines and drawings form small lateral humps of different sizes. Some drawings, especially the early ones, were made by removing the stones and gravel from their contours and in this way the figures stood out in high relief. eh, Nazca Lines.
The concentration and juxtaposition of the lines and drawings leave no doubt that they required intensive long-term labor as is demonstrated by the stylistic continuity of the designs, which clearly correspond to the different stages of cultural changes.
There appear to be two kinds of designs: the first are figures of various beings and things and the others form geometric lines.
Huge trapezoidal (wedge-like) designs
The former consists of figures of animals, plants, objects, such as anthropomorphic figures of colossal proportions made with well-defined lines.
There are also drawings of flowers and plants, as well as representations of deformed animals and other strange Nazca figures.
An example of this is the drawing of a weird being with two enormous hands, one normal and the other with only four fingers. Also represented are drawings of man-made objects such as yarn, looms and “tupus” (ornamental clasps). All these figures have well-defined entrances which could be used as paths or to allow people to line together along the conformations of the drawings.
The anthropomorphic figures are relatively few and are situated on the slopes.
The most well-known being The Astronaut at 32m length an E.T., discovered by Eduardo Herran in 1982.
Others are The Man with a Hat and The Executioner and they also appear to be the most primitive. These figures are very similar to the small petroglyphs found in the rocky areas of the region.
In terms of the lines, many kilometers long, they crisscross sectors of the pampas in all directions. Many of the lines form geometric figures: angles, triangles, bunches, spirals, rectangles, wavy lines, etc. Other lines form concentric circles converging with or emanating from a promontory. Other prints have formed “roads” like geometric planes and appear to have been occupied by large groups of the population.
Spirals of consciousness? Sacred Geometry?
Many lines are random and seem to have no pattern to them. They are seen over the scattered seemingly at random over the desolate plain, crossing and intersecting for no apparent reason.
The Nazca Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920’s. Passengers reported seeing ‘primitive landing strips’ on the ground below. Today people sometimes fly in hot air balloons to view the splendors of the Nazca Lines, their eneries awakening something within their souls.
NAZCA LINES – DESIGNS
1. Killer Whale
3. Baby Condor
THEORIES ABOUT THE NAZCA LINES
Maria Reiche – Astronomical Calendar – She was the most famous Nazca Researcher. Lines should show in direction of the rising of important stars and planetary events like sun solstices.
Michigan History Timeline
Following the prehistoric inhabitants, Michigan's residents were the tribal groups of Ojibwa, Ottawa and Potawatomi Native Americans. The history and the way of life of Michigan Indians was profoundly affected by newcomers to the area. The indigenous people had occupied the land thousands of years before the first European explorers arrived. The Europeans brought with them new ideas, customs, religions, weapons, transport (the horse and the wheel), livestock (cattle and sheep) and disease which profoundly affected the history of the Native Indians.
Michigan, the Wolverine State, joined the union in 1837. Located in the center of the Great Lakes, Michigan is divided into two land masses known as the Upper and Lower Peninsulas.
17th Century Michigan History Timeline
1622 - French explorers etienne Brule, and his companion Grenoble, are probably the first white men to see Lake Superior.
1668 - Fathers Jacques Marquette and Claude Dablon establish the first mission at Sault Sainte Marie.
1673 - May 17 - Jesuit missionary Jacques Marquette, fur trader Louis Jolliet and five voyageurs leave the recently established Indian mission at St. Ignace to explore a great river known by the Indians as the "Messissipi."
18th Century Michigan History Timeline
1701- June 24 - Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, a 43-year-old French army officer, selects a site at le detroit (the straits) - the waterway between Lakes St. Clair and Erie - and establishes a French settlement.
1715 - The French establish Fort Michilimackinac at the Straits of Mackinac.
1760 - The French surrender Fort Pontchartrain to the British, ending French rule in Detroit.
1763 - May 7 - During the Indian wars in the area, Pontiac leads a 135-day siege of Detroit. Indians capture all the forts in Michigan, except Detroit.
1787 - The (Northwest) Ordinance of 1787 defines the procedure for obtaining statehood in the Northwest Territory, of which Michigan is a part.
1792 - Under the British Parliament's Constitutional Act, the first election is held in Michigan.
1796 - July 11 - The British evacuate Detroit and abandon their posts on the Great Lakes.
19th Century Michigan History Timeline
1805 - The Michigan Territory is created, with Detroit designated as the seat of government. William Hull is appointed as governor. Detroit is destroyed by fire.
1812 - Detroit and Fort Mackinac are surrendered to the British during the War of 1812.
- January 22- A British force of 1,300 soldiers and Indians falls upon an American army at the River Raisin near present-day Monroe. Against direct orders, US Brigadier General James Winchester has moved his force of 700 Kentuckians and 200 regulars to the River Raisin.
- American forces reenter Detroit. Lewis Cass is appointed military and civil governor of the Michigan Territory.
1819 - The Treaty of Saginaw cedes nearly 6 million acres of Indian lands to Michigan settlers. Michigan sends a delegate to Congress.
1828 - The Territorial Capitol is built at Detroit for a cost of $24,500.
- The Toledo War ensues over the Michigan- Ohio boundary. Michigan was not admitted to the Union because she would not surrender her claim to the Toledo strip. The area was finally surrendered in exchange for the western section of the Upper Peninsula.
- The First Constitutional Convention . . Stevens T. Mason is inaugurated as the first Governor.
1837 - Michigan is admitted to the Union as the twenty-sixth state.
1841 - The University of Michigan is moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor.
1842 - Copper mining operations begin near Keweenaw Point.
1844 - Iron ore is discovered in the Upper Peninsula at Negaunee.
- January 27 - Underground Railroad: Francis Troutman and several others arrive at the home of the Adam Crosswhite family - Kentucky slaves who have escaped to Marshall.
- A law is passed by the State Legislature to locate the State Capital "in the township of Lansing, in the county of Ingham."
1854 - The Republican Party is organized at Jackson.
1855 - June 22 - The ship canal at Sault Ste. Marie opens.
1863 - July 1- Civil War
1861-1865 - Over 90,000 Michigan men are mustered into service during the Civil War.
1877 - January 28 - Winfield Scott Gerrish opens the 7.1-mile-long Lake George and Muskegon River Railroad in Clare County. Following a warm winter that seriously hampered logging activities, Gerrish moves 20 million board feet of logs to the Muskegon River.
1879 - The new State Capitol is dedicated in Lansing the structure cost $1,510,130.
20th Century Michigan History Timeline
1908 - The Ford Model T is first manufactured.
1896 - March 6 - Charles King of Detroit is the first person to test drive a gasoline-powered automobile in Michigan. Three months later, also in Detroit, Henry Ford drives his gasoline-powered, two-cylinder quadricycle.
1910 -The first primary election in Michigan is held.
1920 - Detroit's WWJ begins commercial broadcasting of regular programs, the first such radio station in the United States.
1930 - The Detroit-Windsor Tunnel opens to automobile traffic.
1933 - May 2 - Two hundred young men from Detroit arrive at an isolated spot in Chippewa County and set up Camp Raco - Michigan's first Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) facility.
1935 - In the midst of the Great Depression, the United Automobile Workers of America (UAW) is organized in Detroit.
1936 - December 30 - Spurred by an unfounded rumor that work is going to be transferred to plants with weak union support, autoworkers begin a spontaneous sit-down strike at General Motors Corporation (GMC) plants in Flint.
1941 - Auto plants are converted to the production of war materials, helping Michigan become known as the "Arsenal of Democracy" on Oct 1, 1942.
1957 - November 1 - The five-mile long Mackinac Bridge opens on November 1.
1959 - Berry Gordy, Jr. founds Motown Records in Detroit.
1963 - The new State Constitution is ratified at the April election.
1967 - Riots erupt in Detroit amidst racial tensions.
1974 - Gerald R. Ford of Grand Rapids becomes the 38th President of the United States.
1976 - Throwaway bottles are banned by a referendum vote .
1977 - The Renaissance Center is dedicated, marking a revival of downtown Detroit.
1980 - The Republican National Convention is held in Detroit.
1981 - The Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum are dedicated in Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids, respectively.
1987 - January 26 - Michigan celebrates 150 years of statehood.
1989 - The Michigan Library and Historical Center is dedicated in Lansing.
- Michigan State University hosts the third and final Presidential debate. The State Capitol building is fully restored and rededicated.
- A constitutional amendment is adopted limiting the number of terms an official can serve as governor or as a federal or state Senator or Representative.
- President Bill Clinton addresses joint session of Michigan Legislature, the first U.S. President to do so since President Theodore Roosevelt visited the state capital in 1907.
- The Detroit Red Wings win the Stanley Cup, its first Cup victory since 1955.
- Lansing celebrates its sesquicentennial as Michigan's state capital.
1998 - The J. L. Hudson's building in Detroit is demolished. Chrysler Corporation merges with the German auto company Daimler-Benz, forming DaimlerChrysler.
21st Century Michigan History Timeline
2001 - Detroit celebrates its 300th anniversary.
2002 - Jennifer M. Granholm becomes the first woman elected governor of
the state of Michigan.
2004 - Altercation between Detroit Pistons, Indiana Pacers took place at NBA game, nine players suspended, five players charged with assault Detroit Pistons won NBA championship
- General Motors announced massive job cuts
- civil rights icon, Rosa Parks, died at age of 92
2008 - Detroit Red Wings won 11th Stanley Cup
- General Motors GM - announced cut of 21,000 US jobs, phasing out Pontiac brand
- Chrysler filed Chapter 11 bankruptcy
- incident on airliner on international flight arriving in Detroit from Amsterdam was failed bomb attack, Nigerian man arrested
2010 - Pipeline in Kalamazoo River sprung leak, more than 800,000 gallons of oil released into creek, traveled to Kalamazoo River, largest oil spill in history of Midwest
2011 - Trial began for Nigerian accused of trying to bomb Detroit-bound flight from Amsterdam