Terrence Spencer

Terrence Spencer

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Terrence Spencer was born in 1918. He took an engineering degree at Birmingham University but left on the outbreak of the Second World War. He joined the Royal Air Force and flew Supermarine Spitfire and Hawker Hurricane. He eventually became commander of his squadron.

One one occasion he parachuted out over the Baltic at 30ft above the water and once held the entry in the Guinness Book of Records for the lowest parachute jump on record. Later he was shot down and taken prisoner of war but managed to escape back to England. He was also awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his wartime achievements.

After the war he set up a successful aerial photography business and met and married a London stage and screen actress, Lesley Brook. The couple moved to South Africa where he became involved in diamond smuggling. This involved flying across the African borders with the diamonds hidden under the front seat of his single-engine plane.

In 1952 Spencer began working for Life Magazine. He also became involved in CIA covert activities such as Operation Tilt. In 1962 Eddie Bayo (Eduardo Perez) claimed that two officers in the Red Army based in Cuba wanted to defect to the United States. Bayo added that these men wanted to pass on details about atomic warheads and missiles that were still in Cuba despite the agreement that followed the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Bayo's story was eventually taken up by several members of the anti-Castro community including Nathaniel Weyl, William Pawley, Gerry P. Hemming, John Martino, Felipe Vidal Santiago and Frank Sturgis. Pawley became convinced that it was vitally important to help get these Soviet officers out of Cuba.

On 8th June, 1963, a small group, including William Pawley, Eddie Bayo, Rip Robertson, Virgilio Gonzalez, Eugenio Martinez, John Martino. Richard Billings, a journalist working for Life Magazine, boarded a CIA flying boat. Spencer also went on the mission as the photographer. After landing off Baracoa, Bayo and his men got into a 22-foot craft and headed for the Cuban shore. The plan was to pick them up with the Soviet officers two days later. However, Bayo and his men were never seen again. It was rumoured that he had been captured and executed. However, his death was never reported in the Cuban press.

Spencer returned to England to cover the Beatles and the 60s cults and fashions, and when the magazine folded in 1972 he freelanced for The New York Times and other US publications. He then began to work for a new American magazine, People, which gave him the opportunity of covering numerous UK pop groups, writers, and stage and screen celebrities. He also sold his work through Camera Press in London.

Spencer is the author of two books, It Was Thirty Years Ago Today (1995) and Living Dangerously (2002). He once told a journalist: "After surviving the Second World War, I never worried about being killed in Vietnam or any other war. I have never been afraid of death but I was always terrified of being hurt or wounded and carried a hypodermic syringe of morphine in my camera bag at all times. I've never even had a scratch in all the wars I covered. The only time I was ever hurt was when I was attacked by Paul McCartney after I discovered his hideaway in Scotland."

Terrence Spencer - History

In this part of the page I want to tell you from my perspective how the congenial duo Terence Hill and Bud Spencer was born and tell you some inside stories around it. In this first part, I look back at the early days. In future parts and updates I will add here and there some new stuff and deepen some topics. The publication of a web video series, in which I will address amongst other topics, the duo and my friendship with Terence is planned as well. stay tuned!

The beginning – sometimes things turn out differently than expected

Life definitively writes the strangest and most wonderful stories. In this regard I can consider myself as a lucky and blessed person, life was very good to me!
I was in the middle of a personal and professional transition when Giuseppe Colizzi contacted me in 1967 and he offered me the role of “Hutch Bessy“ in his film “Dio perdona. io no! (God forgives. I don't!)”. After a lot of thinking and many doubts, I accepted to play the role, never even guessing to participate in a second movie. A young man named Mario Girotti was hired the day before the start of the shootings as a replacement to another actor who had an accident and broke his foot. His role was called “Cat Stevens” and when the filming started we only had the time to briefly say “Hi!” to each other. Neither one of us could ever imagine that this was the beginning of a new wonderful story in our lives: the friendship of Mario and Carlo, the birth of Terence Hill and Bud Spencer as inseparable duo on and off the movie screen!

I was a bit too fast. let’s go a few steps back and get the things sorted out right, there’s much more to tell. Actually, the story of Mario respectively Terence starts beforehand. You know what, let’s use the names Terence and Bud from now on because the birth of these two characters also marks the beginning of a new wonderful chapter of my personal life.

We were in the same business circles for some time – but we have never met.

Terence always remembers when, as a young amateur swimmer, he would come and watch his idols training. We never had a chance to meet then, first because he was a teenager at that time and secondly because my training was always very fast and lazy.
A few years later and still very young, Terence become active as an actor for quite some time, therefore he was frequently working in Cinecittà Studios (Rome) where most of the Italian and international productions took place. I lived in Rome at that time, had worked a bit as an actor, played mini roles in films but was active mainly as a composer. Later I worked in my own small production company and many time I assisted my father in law, Giuseppe Amato who was one of the most active film producer in the 50’s and 60’s. Therefore I was often to be encountered around Cinecittà. Terence and I must have crossed paths many times but destiny had decided for us that it was not yet time for us to meet. In 1959 for example, I just came back to Rome from Venezuela and was hired for the role of “Rutario” in the epic film “Annibale (Hannibal)”. Terence was also hired for this film, he played the role of “Quintilius”. We were both in the same film, but we didn't even see each other once during the filming as we had different days of shooting for our scenes.

Then, however, the time had come - “Ciao Carlo, I’m Mario, I am pleased to meet you. ”

In 1967 the time had finally come, we have been selected for the roles of “Cat Stevens” and “Hutch Bessy” in “Dio perdona. io no! (God forgives. I don't!)” directed by Giuseppe Colizzi. I can remember the first time I met Terence on the set as if it was yesterday. I sat there and went mentally through my role. Everybody was very nervous because of the accident occurred to the actor that was meant to play the co-star. I was not nervous because for me it was just another experience in life without a lot of meaning and also because the actor that suffered the accident was a little arrogant and I don’t get along well with arrogant people. So I was taking it easy when suddenly Terence stood in front of me and introduced himself: “Ciao, I’m Mario, I am pleased to meet you. ”. He sat down next to me and we went through a few scenes together. A polite, friendly and modest person who told me his admiration for my sport successes. Blue eyes and contagious smile, the kind of man that mothers wish as husband for their daughters. I immediately felt a great sympathy for him. I think he felt the same, we had an intellectual connection to each other, human as well as professionally.
He had a lot of experiences as an actor so our ways of playing the characters and the approach before the shoot was very different but the fundamental human values were exactly the same. These synergies were immediately noticed by the director Giuseppe Colizzi. He understood right away that our type of characters complemented each other perfectly and he could play around with us. Terence was always well prepared for his daily scenes and his roles, he studied the script until late at night and instead of having dinner with the crew, he sometimes stayed in his room thinking about ways to improve the next day work. On the other side I have rarely waived a dinner, I was lazier in preparing my scenes and since I never studied to be an actor, I was more instinctive and my past sport activities and my physical characteristics helped me a lot. Being so different we had no jealousy nor enviousness for each other. On the contrary there has always been a lot of respect among us. We both had a very common private life and success didn’t corrupt our minds nor the way we behaved.
We were then hired to play together in two other films directed by Giuseppe Colizzi, in 1968 “I quattro dell'Ave Maria (Ace high)” with the great American actor Eli Wallach who was so patient to teach me a lot of tricks to be a better actor and in 1969 “La collina degli stivali (Boot Hill)”. Both films were successful and with each of them our friendship on set grew and I learned more and more to appreciate Terence as a very positive human being.

The vision of E.B. Clucher aka Enzo Barboni

Giuseppe Colizzi prepared the ground for the highest grossing film of 1970. Terence and I were popular but still not a professional couple on our own.
Enzo Barboni, a renown director of photography of many important films had the intuition to create a new type of “Italian Western” with more humor and gags and no dead people he wanted to direct the film himself. For “Lo chiamavano Trinità. (My Name Is Trinity)” he had collected numerous refusals from producers: “the concept does not work, there is too much dialogue and not enough action, the audience wants to see shootings and deaths” – these were the kind of reactions he had been told over and over again. But he knew what he was doing and was determined to stick to his ideas and then, when he finally showed the script to Italo Zingarelli, Italo was excited from the first moment and decided to produce the film. They offered the main characters, “Trinity” and “Bambino”, to Terence and myself and we felt really well in those boots.

With E. B. Clucher on the set, we had a lot of fun, the roles were cut for us and Enzo accepted a lot of our ideas to improve the daily shooting. Our west was a fantastic valley between the mountains in the center of Italy and even though the budget was pretty small we were really motivated to do a good job. Between the shooting we played football and eat together in a relaxed atmosphere. We had a great time, everything was just right and the story would not be complete without mentioning our great team of stuntmen guided by a fantastic stunt coordinator, Giorgio Ubaldi. The film hit the big screen in 1970 and was an unexpected huge national and international success becoming the highest grossing Italian film worldwide, beating the previous record of “La dolce vita” produced ten years earlier by my father in law Giuseppe Amato. The success was so wide that Cinemas had a lot of problems to contain the enthusiasm of the audience with many people who remained seated after the show and wanted to see the movie over and over again. Some of my oldest fans told me they saw the film seven or eight times in a row during the opening weekend in 1970.
A growing wonderful team of actors, stuntmen, crew members from that moment on, would be together in many films in the future. We all felt we had achieved something great with the generous contribution of everybody.

Do you know “Murphy's Law: Anything that can go wrong, will go wrong.”?
The story of Terence Hill and Bud Spencer is a kind of “Murphy's Law” simply reversed.
A chain of lucky events and coincidences, everything was just perfect!

In retrospective, It is very difficult to explain such luck!

Between 1971 and 1974, Terence and I did five more films together: the sequel of Trinity, “. continuavano a chiamarlo Trinità (Trinity Is Still My Name)” topped the success of the first one and made international movie stars. We then accepted to work again with Giuseppe Colizzi with an extremely low salary as a sign of gratitude in a film he was directing and producing. We traveled to Colombia to interpret two airplane pilots in “. Più forte ragazzi! (All the Way Boys!)”, one of my favorite films. My passion for flying started there.
Afterwards Terence had a great success with “Il mio nome è Nessuno (My Name is Nobody)” acting aside Henry Fonda and then he decided to try an experience in Hollywood and made a film with Gene Hackman. 1973 I did the first film as Commissioner Rizzo in “Piedone lo sbirro (Flatfoot)”, one of my all time favorite roles. I really enjoyed working in Naples, my home town, directed by Steno, one of all time greatest Italian directors. We both proved we could be very successful on our own and there were other three blockbuster sequels of the saga of Flatfoot.

After a short break we got back together.

In 1977 we were offered another fantastic script from E.B.Clucher and we did our first movie in Miami as two improvised cops. “I due superpiedi quasi piatti (Crime Busters)” was another incredible international success. Until 1985 almost every year a new movie with us came out. The friendship with Terence had grown year after year greater and greater parallel to our popularity together. We regularly met and still meet today for a Spaghetti and Tomato dinner cooked by my wife Maria. Terence and his wife Lori say it is their favorite.

I can only say it was a blessing for me to meet and be friend with Terence Hill!

Terrence Spencer - History

Harlem Renaissance poet Anne Spencer lived her entire life in Virginia, where she tended her garden, worked as a librarian and teacher, hosted luminaries of Black intellectual and cultural life, and fought for equal rights for African Americans.

Spencer was born Annie Bethel Scales Bannister near Danville, Virginia on February 6, 1882. She was the only child of Sarah Louise Scales and Joel Cephus Bannister, a former slave with Black, white, and Seminole Indian ancestry. Soon after her birth, the family moved to Martinsville, VA, where Spencer's father opened a saloon. Spencer began studying at the Virginia Seminary in Lynchburg, VA (now Virginia University of Lynchburg) at the age of 11. She distinguished herself as a student of literature and languages and graduated as valedictorian in 1899.

Spencer then taught for two years before marrying Edward Alexander Spencer in 1901. The two had been students together – Edward tutored Annie in math and science, while Annie helped Edward with languages. Edward became the first African-American postman in Lynchburg, as well as an entrepreneur in construction and business. In 1903 they moved into a Queen Anne style home in Lynchburg that Edward had designed and built. They lived in that house for the rest of their lives. Today it is the home to the Anne Spencer House & Garden Museum. The couple had three children: Bethel Calloway, Alroy Sarah, and Chauncey Edward. Chauncey became a pioneer aviator who fought for greater opportunities for African-American pilots.

Spencer possessed a lifelong determination to improve conditions for African Americans in her community. It was through her civil rights work that she began her career as a poet. Spencer and her husband frequently hosted Black travelers in their home, as African Americans were barred from staying at local inns and hotels due to Jim Crow segregation. As a result, their home became a salon for prominent individuals like W. E. B. Du Bois, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, and Thurgood Marshall. In 1918, Spencer helped found the Lynchburg chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Writer and activist James Weldon Johnson was the Spencers’ guest while he helped open the local NAACP chapter. Spencer had dabbled in poetry since she was a child and Johnson recognized her talent. He recommended her to H.L. Mencken and the two writers published her poem, “Before the Feast of Shushan,” in The Crisis (Feb. 1920). Johnson also included Spencer’s poetry in his 1922 anthology, The Book of American Negro Poetry. By 1931, Spencer had published poems in magazines like The Crisis, Palms, and Opportunity, all associated with the Harlem Renaissance literary and artistic movement. Though she remained in Virginia, Spencer maintained close friendships with other Harlem Renaissance writers throughout her life, including Johnson, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and Countee Cullen.

Though Spencer wrote prolifically, she published few poems after the death of Johnson in 1938 and in total published a relatively small number (approximately 30) in her lifetime. Two dozen more were published in her biography by J. Lee Greene, Time’s Unfading Garden: Anne Spencer’s Life and Poetry (1977). But the quality of her work established Spencer as a significant poet of the twentieth century. Spencer was the first African-American woman poet published in the Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry (1973). She used traditional forms like sonnets, epigrams, and elegies, and most of her poems are short, with few extending beyond 20 lines. Her poetry draws on universal themes such as religion and mythology as well as her garden and nature. Spencer treasured her home garden and the cottage her husband built for her there, which she named Edankraal. (Edankraal derives from the couple’s names, Edward and Anne, and kraal, the Afrikaans word for enclosure or corral.) She would draw inspiration there, often reading and writing late into the night.

Spencer also worked for 20 years as a librarian and part-time teacher of literature and language at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, the African-American high school in Lynchburg. She supplemented the school library’s scant collection with volumes of her own and led a campaign to replace the school’s white faculty with Black teachers. She served on many local committees intended to improve legal, social, and economic conditions for her community, and frequently wrote to newspaper editors and city officials on these issues. She was staunch in her refusal to ride segregated buses and street cars. Spencer’s son said of her, “My mother was full of fire.”

Spencer passed away from cancer at the age of 93 in 1975. She is buried alongside her husband, who died in 1964, at Forest Hills Cemetery in Lynchburg. In 2019, the United States Postal Service announced that Spencer would be honored on a Forever Stamp as part of the “Voices of the Harlem Renaissance” series, alongside writer and critic Alain Locke, novelist Nella Larsen, and historian Arturo Alfonso Schomburg.

Mark G. Spencer

Mark Spencer’s scholarship centers on the history of ideas in the eighteenth-century British Atlantic world. Prominent among his current projects is work on David Hume (1711-76) as historian and a SSHRC-funded study of John Beale Bordley (1727-1804), an enlightened American “Founding Father” of Maryland and Pennsylvania. An early part of Bordley’s story—Spencer’s recovery of the contexts of Bordley’s first pamphlet, Necessaries (1776)—has been published by the American Philosophical Society.

Fellow of the Royal Historical Society (FRHistS) and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (FSAScot), Spencer has held a Brock University Chancellor’s Chair for Research Excellence. Editorial board member of Hume Studies, Enlightenment & Dissent, and Adam Matthew Digital, he has also served on the Executive Committee of the Eighteenth-Century Scottish Studies Society (including as President), and is a founding Trustee for the Robert T. and Moira Sansom Ideas Foundation.

Professor Spencer has authored, edited, or co-edited 20+ volumes. His first monograph, David Hume and Eighteenth-Century America (2005, reprinted 2010), was based on his award-winning PhD (2001) dissertation—it received a Governor General’s Gold Medal (The University of Western Ontario) and The John Bullen Prize of the Canadian Historical Association. Before publishing his second monograph, John Beale Bordley’s ‘Necessaries’: An American Enlightenment Pamphlet in its Historical Contexts (2020), Spencer was editor-in-chief for The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment (2 vols, 2015). That project, ten years in the making and with 370 contributors, has been released by Oxford University Press in its Online Reference Library.

His other edited and co-edited volumes include David Hume: Historical Thinker, Historical Writer (2013), Ulster Presbyterians in the Atlantic World: Religion, Politics and Identity [with David A. Wilson] (2006), Utilitarians and Their Critics in America, 1789-1914 [with James E. Crimmins] (4 vols, 2005), and a two-volume reader on Hume’s reception in early America (2002)—the latter, revised and expanded, was reissued as Hume’s Reception in Early America: Expanded Edition (2017).

For Wordsworth Classics of World Literature, he has introduced volumes of writings by Adam Smith (2012), Karl Marx (2013), John Locke (2014), John Stuart Mill (2016), and John Maynard Keynes (2017).

Several of those have also been released as audiobooks produced by Ukemi Productions for Audible. So too have original contributions, such as his Alexander Hamilton: America’s Founding Father of Finance (2020).

Some of Spencer’s 40+ essays have been published by The William and Mary Quarterly The Scottish Historical Review Hume Studies Enlightenment & Dissent Eighteenth-Century Studies and Clio: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History. Recent book chapters include “Jonathan Edwards and the Historiography of the American Enlightenment” (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2020) “Hume, The Historian” (Routledge, 2019) “Several Contexts of the Scottish Enlightenment” [co-authored with Roger L. Emerson] (Cambridge UP, 2019) “The Composition, Reception, and Early Influence of Hume’s Essays and Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals” (Yale UP, 2018) “The Paradoxes of Edmund Burke’s Reception in America, 1757-1790” (Bloomsbury, 2017) and “Enlightenment in Scotland and America” (Oxford UP, 2015). As well, he has published 350+ short pieces, many in reference books like the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Spencer quite enjoys reviewing books. He does so for academic journals in several disciplines and his reviews feature regularly in The Times Literary Supplement and The Wall Street Journal.

External funding for Professor Spencer’s work has been provided by SSHRC (multiple awards) McGill University Library the University of Helsinki the University of California, Santa Barbara the Hume Society Harvard University the American Antiquarian Society the Institute of Ulster-Scots Studies and the UK’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office, through a Robert T. Jones, Jr, Chevening Scholarship, among others.


John Beale Bordley’s ‘Necessaries’: An American Enlightenment Pamphlet in its Historical Contexts (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2020)

David Hume and Eighteenth-Century America (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press / Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2005 reprinted 2010)

Hume’s Reception in Early America: Expanded Edition (New York, 2017)

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment, 2 vols (New York and London, 2015)

David Hume: Historical Thinker, Historical Writer (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013)

Ulster Presbyterians in the Atlantic World: Religion, Politics and Identity [with David A. Wilson] (Dublin, 2006)

Utilitarians and Their Critics in America, 1789-1914, 4 vols [with James E. Crimmins] (Bristol and London, 2005)

Hume’s Reception in Early America, 2 vols (Bristol, UK originally distributed in North America by The University of Chicago Press, 2002)

Editions for Wordsworth Classics of World Literature (gen. ed. Tom Griffith):

John Maynard Keynes: ‘The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money’ and ‘The Economic Consequences of the Peace’ (2017)

John Stuart Mill: ‘On Liberty,’ ‘Utilitarianism’ and Other Works (2016)

John Locke: ‘An Essay concerning Human Understanding’ with the ‘Second Treatise of Government’ (2014)

Karl Marx: ‘Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production’: Volumes 1 and 2 (2013)

Adam Smith: ‘An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations’ (2012)

Introductions for Ukemi Audiobooks (produced by Nicolas Soames):

William Godwin: An Enquiry concerning Political Justice (2020)

Alexander Hamilton: America’s Founding Father of Finance. His Original Reports on Public Credit, A National Bank, and Manufactures (2020)

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations (2020)

Proclus: The Elements of Theology (2018) M. Keynes: The Economic Consequences of the Peace (2018) M. Keynes: The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (2018)

John Locke: Essay concerning Human Understanding (2018)

Selected articles and chapters:

“Jonathan Edwards and the Historiography of the American Enlightenment,” in Daniel N. Gullotta and John T. Lowe, eds. Jonathan Edwards within the Enlightenment: Controversy, Experience, and Thought (The Jonathan Edwards Center, Yale University / Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2020), 21-40.

“Was David Hume, the Historian, a Plagiarist? A Submission from His History of England,” CLIO: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History, Vol. 47, Issue 1 (2019), 25-50.

“Hume, The Historian,” for Angela M. Coventry and Alexander Sager, eds. The Humean Mind, Routledge Philosophy Minds Series (New York: Routledge, 2019), 287-99.

“Several Contexts of the Scottish Enlightenment,” [co-authored with Roger L. Emerson], in Alexander Broadie and Craig Smith, eds. The Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment, second edition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2019), 9-32.

“David Hume’s ‘A Character of Sir Robert Walpole’: Humean Factional Fears, the ‘Rage against the Scots’, and Future Historians,” [co-authored with Marc Hanvelt], The Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 98, Supplementary Issue (October 2019), 361-89.

“The Composition, Reception, and Early Influence of Hume’s Essays and Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals,” in Angela Coventry and Andrew Valls, eds. David Hume on Morals, Politics, and Society, Rethinking the Western Tradition (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2018), 241-64.

“Placing Hume in the Enlightenment: ‘Ambassador from the Dominions of Learning to those of Conversation’,” Enlightenment and Dissent 31 (2016 [published Spring 2017]), 82-101.

“ ‘Distant and Commonly Faint and Disfigured Originals’: Hume’s Magna Charta and Sabl’s Fundamental Constitutional Conventions,” Hume Studies 41, no. 1 (April 2015 [published 2017]), 73-80.

“The Paradoxes of Edmund Burke’s Reception in America, 1757-1790,” in Martin Fitzpatrick and Peter Jones, eds. The Reception of Edmund Burke in Europe, The Athlone Critical Traditions Series: The Reception of British and Irish Authors in Europe (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017), 39-54.

with Adam Nadeau, “CO 5 as lived experience: The Boston Tea Party and the everyday life of fear and uncertainty in the era of the American Revolution,” Colonial America. 2017. (Adam Matthew Digital, Marlborough, UK) [An essay to accompany the release of “The American Revolution,” Module 3 of Colonial America, digital archive of documents from Colonial Office (CO 5), 1606-1822, The National Archives, UK] Accessed September 8, 2017. http://www.colonialamerica.amdigital.co.uk/Explore/Essays/Spencer

“ ‘Free Trade and Free Thought’: J.M. Keynes and the Safeguarding of Individualism,” in John Maynard Keynes: ‘The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money’ and ‘The Economic Consequences of the Peace’, Wordsworth Classics of World Literature (Ware, Hertfordshire, 2017), vii-xxxviii.

“The Paradoxes of Edmund Burke’s Reception in America, 1757-1790,” in Martin Fitzpatrick and Peter Jones, eds. The Reception of Edmund Burke in Europe, The Athlone Critical Traditions Series: The Reception of British and Irish Authors in Europe (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2017), 39-54.

“Revolutionary Friends, Fathers, and Feelings,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 49, no. 3 (2016), 415-20.

with Roger L. Emerson, “A Bibliography for Hume’s History of England: A Preliminary View,” Hume Studies 40, no. 1 (Apr. 2014 [published Feb. 2016]), 53-71.

“John Stuart Mill, Enlightened Reformer: Selected Writings from the 1860s,” in John Stuart Mill: ‘On Liberty,’ ‘Utilitarianism’ and Other Works (Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 2016), vii-xxxvi.

“Enlightenment in Scotland and America,” in Jean-François Dunyach and Ann Thomson, eds. The Enlightenment in Scotland: National and International Perspectives, Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, Oxford University Press, 2015), 181-203.

“Benjamin Franklin, the Ends of Empire, and the American Revolution,” Enlightenment and Dissent 30 (2015), 99-109.

“Introduction,” in Spencer, ed. The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment, 2 vols (New York and London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015), 1:xxxi-xxxvi.

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment (New York and London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015), ed. Mark G. Spencer 14 essays: “Aitken, Robert (1735-1802),” 1:33-4 “Benbridge, Henry (1743-1812) [co-authored with Angela D. Mack],” 1:133-5 “Bordley, John Beale (1727-1804),” 1:157-60 “Bowditch, Nathaniel (1773-1838),” 1:164-5 “Campbell, Robert (1769-1800),” 1:189 “Dallas, Alexander James (1759-1817),” 1:313-5 “Marshall, Humphry (1722-1801),” 2:689-91 “Physick, Philip Syng (1768-1837),” 2:810-11 “Silliman, Benjamin, Sr. (1779-1864),” 2:963-6 “Smith, William (1727-1803) [co-authored with M.A. Stewart],” 2:980-83 “Syng, Philip, Jr. (1703-1789),” 2:1013-4 “Vaughan, John (1756-1841) [co-authored with Roy E. Goodman],” 2:1070-71 “Waterhouse, Benjamin (1754-1846),” 2:1088-9 “Williamson, Hugh (1735-1819),” 2:1104-7.

“John Locke and His World,” in John Locke: ‘Essay concerning Human Understanding’ with the ‘Second Treatise of Government’ (Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Editions, 2014), ix-xxvii.

The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783-1812: A Political, Social, and Military History, 3 vols (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2014), ed. Spencer C. Tucker 6 essays [5 reprinted]: “West, Benjamin (1738-1820),” 2:737-738 “Dickinson, John (1732-1808),” 1:171-2 “Smith, Adam (1723-90),” 2:620-621 “Warren, Mercy Otis (1728-1814),” 2:720-1 [all reprinted from Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History, see “2007” entry below] “Stuart, Gilbert (1755-1828),” 2:641-2 “Webster, Noah (1758-1843),” 2:735-6. [reprinted from Encyclopedia of the War of 1812: A Political, Social, and Military History]

“Hume as Historian,” in Spencer, ed. David Hume: Historical Thinker, Historical Writer (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013), 1-12.

“Hume and Madison on Faction,” in Knud Haakonssen and Richard Whatmore, eds. David Hume, International Library of Essays in the History of Social and Political Thought (Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing Group, 2013), 93-120 [reprint of “Hume and Madison on Faction,” The William and Mary Quarterly, 2002]

“Introduction,” in Karl Marx: ‘Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production’: Volumes 1 and 2 (Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Editions, 2013), xi-xxxi.

American Civil War: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection, 6 vols (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2013), ed. Spencer C. Tucker 2 essays: “Constitutional Union Party,” 1:425 “Gilmer, John Adams (1805-1869),” 2:777.

Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, 2nd edition (Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference, 2013), ed. Patrick Mason 1 essay: “Enlightenment,” 109-15.

“Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations,” in Adam Smith: ‘An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations’ (Hertfordshire, UK: Wordsworth Editions, 2012), xi-xxxiv.

Encyclopedia of the War of 1812: A Political, Social, and Military History (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2012), eds. Spencer C. Tucker, et al. 2 essays: “Stuart, Gilbert (1755-1828),” 689-90 “Webster, Noah (1758-1843),” 758.

Encyclopedia of Water Politics and Policy in the United States (Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2011), eds. Steven L. Danver and John R. Burch, Jr. 1 essay: “General Survey Act of 1824,” 281-2.

World History Encyclopedia, 21 vols (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2011), gen. ed. Fred Nadis 1 essay: “John Locke and Enlightenment Political Thought,” 12:433 [invited reprint (with revisions) of my essay on John Locke in the Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History, see “2007” entry below].

“Plus ça change? Education in the Enlightenment and Now,” Academic Matters: The Journal of Higher Education (Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associations), (posted on-line December 2010) http://www.academicmatters.ca/current_issue.article.gk?catalog_item_id=4521&category=/web_exclusive/review_essays/current/OCT2010

World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio Solutions, 2010), website database 1 essay: “Stuart, Gilbert (1755-1828)” [reissued from United States at War, see “2005” entry below].

American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U.S. History, 3 vols (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2009), ed. Gina Misiroglu 2 essays: “Alison, Francis (1705-1779),” 1:23-24 “Backus, Isaac (1724-1806),” 1:54-55.

Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World, 3 vols (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2008), ed. Junius Rodrigues 5 essays: “Beattie, James (1735-1803),” 1:62-3 “Blackstone, Sir William (1723-1780),” 1:76-7 “Fox, Charles James (1749-1806),” 1:214-5 “Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873),” 2:374-5 “Montesquieu, Charles-Louis Secondate, Baron de (1689-1755),” 2:378-9.

International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 9 vols (2nd edition, Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008), ed. William A. Darity, Jr. 2 essays: “Madison, James (1751-1836),” 4:547-8 “Voltaire (1694-1778),” 8:634-6.

Ireland and the Americas: Culture, Politics, History, 3 vols (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2008), eds. James P. Byrne, Philip Coleman, and Jason King 3 essays: “Brown, Alexander (1764-1834),” 1:127-8 “Henry, John (1746-1794),” 2:410-11 “McNutt, Alexander (1725-1811),” 2:583-4.

Research and Discovery: Landmarks and Pioneers in American Science, 3 vols (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2008), ed. Russell Lawson 6 essays: “Almanacs,” 2:579 “Douglass, William (1681-1752),” 2:319-20 “Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790), 1:27-8 “Hamilton, Dr. Alexander (1712-1756), 2:331-2 “Poor Richard’s Almanack,” 2:608-10 “Rittenhouse, David (1732-1796),” 3:662-3.

“Hume’s Reception in Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia,” in Emilio Mazza and Emanuele Ronchetti, eds. New Essays on David Hume (Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli, 2007), 287-308.

“Daniel Defoe,” in Ellen J. Jenkins, ed. Eighteenth-Century British Historians, volume 336 in the Dictionary of Literary Biography (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2007), 82-94.

Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760-1815, 2 vols (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007), ed. Gregory Fremont-Barnes 1 essay: “American Revolution (1775-1783),” 1:20-7.

Encyclopedia of the American Revolutionary War: A Political, Social, and Military History, 4 vols (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2007), eds. Gregory Fremont-Barnes and Richard A. Ryerson 15 essays: “Blackstone, Sir William (1723-1780),” 1:102 “Burke, Edmund (1729-1797),” 1:163-4 “Dickinson, John (1732-1808),” 1:345-7 “Hume, David (1711-1776),” 2:624 “Locke, John (1632-1704),” 2:726-8 “Macaulay (-Graham), Catherine Sawbridge (1731-1791),” 3:751 “McKinly, John (1721-1796),” 3:786-7 “Price, Dr. Richard (1723-1791),” 3:1011 “Priestly, Dr. Joseph (1733-1804),” 3:1012 “Ramsay, Allan (1713-1784),” 3:1055 “Rittenhouse, David (1732-1796),” 3:1082 “Secondat, Charles-Louis de, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755),” 4:1139-40 “Smith, Adam (1723-1790),” 4:1165-6 “Smith, William (1727-1803),” 4:1167-8 “Warren, Mercy Otis (1728-1814),” 4:1320-1.

Revolutionary War: A Student Encyclopedia, 5 vols (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2007), eds. Gregory Fremont-Barnes and Richard A. Ryerson 8 essays reprinted from the volume listed directly above: “Burke, Edmund (1729-1797),” 1:226-8 “Dickinson, John (1732-1808),” 1:508-11 “Hume, David (1711-1776),” 2:921 “Locke, John (1632-1704),” 2:1060-1 “Priestly, Dr. Joseph (1733-1804),” 3:1483 Secondat, Charles-Louis de, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755),” 3:1678 “Smith, Adam (1723-1790),” 4:1722 “Warren, Mercy Otis (1728-1814),” 4:1959-60.

“ ‘Stupid Irish teagues’ and the Encouragement of Enlightenment: Ulster Presbyterian Students of Moral Philosophy in Glasgow,” in Wilson and Spencer, eds. Ulster Presbyterians in the Atlantic World: Religion, Politics and Identity (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2006), 50-61.

The Encyclopedia of African American History: From the Colonial Period through the Age of Frederick Douglass, 1619-1895, 3 vols (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), ed. Paul Finkelman 1 essay: “American Revolution, Memory of,” 1:66-7.

Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450, 3 vols (Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006), ed. Thomas Benjamin 1 essay: “Enlightenment Thought,” 1:447-52.

Encyclopedia of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2006), ed. Gregory Fremont-Barnes 6 essays: “Bentham, Jeremy, (1748-1832),” 1:132-3 “Cornwallis, William (1744-1819),” 1:269 “Fox, Charles James (1749-1806),” 1:360 “Graham, Thomas (1748-1843),” 2:420-1 “Malta, Operations on (1798-1800),” 2:602-3 “Melville, Henry Dundas, First Viscount (1742-1811),” 2:628-9.

The Encyclopedia of New York State (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005), ed. Peter Eisenstadt 14 essays: “Abercromby, James (1706-1781),” 1-2 “Amherst, Jeffrey (1717-1797),” 78 “Armstrong, John Jr. (1758-1843),” 119 “Boston Post Road,” 198 “Bradford, William (1663-1742),” 203 “Burgoyne, John (1723-1792),” 241-242 “DeLancey, James (1701-1760),” 445 “DeLancey, Oliver (1718-1785),” 445 “Democratic-Republican Societies,” 445 “Duer, William (1743-1799),” 474 “Gates, Horatio (1727-1806),” 624 “Livingston, Philip (1716-1778),” 912 “Montgomery, Richard (1738-1775),” 1003 “Smith, William Jr. (1728-1793),” 1427.

The Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right, 2 vols (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2005), ed. Rodney P. Carlisle 1 essay: “Hobbes, Thomas (1588-1679),” 1:217-8.

United States at War: Understanding Conflict and Society (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2005), website database 1 essay: “Stuart, Gilbert (1755-1828).”

Alcohol and Temperance in Modern History: An International Encyclopedia, 2 vols (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2004), eds. Jack Blocker, David M. Fahey, and Ian R. Tyrrell 1 essay: “The Whiskey Rebellion,” 2:648-50.

Biographical Dictionary of British Economists, 2 vols (Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press, 2004), ed. Morgen Witzel 1 essay: “Dugald Stewart (1753-1828),” 2:1165-6.

Dictionary of Irish Philosophers (Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press, 2004), ed. Thomas Duddy 2 essays: “Haliday, Samuel (1685-1739),” 146-7 “Kirkpatrick, James (c.1676-1743),” 179-80.

Conspiracy Theories in American History, 2 vols (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 2004), ed. Peter Knight 2 essays: “Democratic-Republican Societies,” 1:220-2 “Hamilton, Alexander (1757-1804),” 1:296-7.

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 60 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press in association with The British Academy, 2004), eds. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison 1 essay: “Povey, Charles (1652-1743),” 45:65-7.

“Another ‘Curious Legend’ about Hume’s An Abstract of a Treatise of Human Nature,” Hume Studies 29 (April 2003), 89-98.

“Did Shays’ Rebellion influence the adoption of the Constitution?” in Keith Krawczynski, ed. History in Dispute: Volume 12, The American Revolution, 1763-1789 (New York: St. James Press, 2003), 285-92.

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment, 4 vols (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), ed. Alan Charles Kors 1 essay: “Almanacs and Yearbooks,” 1:40-1.

Reader’s Guide to British History, 2 vols (London and Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2003), ed. David Loades 5 essays: “Butler, Joseph (1692-1752),” 1:206-7 “Malthus, Robert (1766-1834),” 2:846-7 “Publishing: Periodical Press and Critical Reviews (18th and 19th centuries),” 2:1030-2 “Stillingfleet, Edward (1635-1699),” 2:1237-8 “Telford, Thomas (1757-1834),” 2:1260-1.

“Hume and Madison on Faction,” The William and Mary Quarterly, ser. 3, 59 (October 2002), 869-96.

“Pursuing Pamela, 1740-1750,” Eighteenth-Century Life 26 (Spring 2002), 96-100.

“Locke and Eighteenth-Century British Philosophy: Recent Tools and Resources,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 34 (Summer 2001), 642-5.

“Benjamin Franklin and David Hume: Compliments of ‘Gold and Wisdom’,” The Franklin Gazette 11 (Spring 2001), 4-6.

“The Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion: Hume’s Response to the Dogmatic and Intolerant,” The Western Journal of Graduate Research 9 (2000), 1-19.

Book reviews:

(grouped by year of publication commissioned reviews [marked *] listed first, followed by other invited reviews in scholarly journals, arranged alphabetically by author or editor’s surname)

*“The Boston Tinderbox” [review of Nina Sankovitch, American Rebels: How the Hancock, Adams, and Quincy Families Fanned the Flames of Revolution (St. Martin’s Press, 2020)], “BOOKSHELF,” The Wall Street Journal, 27 April 2020, A13. [Also published online as “‘American Rebels’ Review: The Boston Tinderbox.”]

*“Certain Inalienable Wrongs: Problems caused by the creation of America” [review of Matthew Lockwood, To begin the World Over Again: How the American Revolution devastated the globe (Yale UP, 2019)], The Times Literary Supplement, Friday, 21 February 2020, 7.

Berry, Christopher J. The Idea of Commercial Society in the Scottish Enlightenment (Edinburgh UP, 2013), 1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era, Vol. 25 (2020), 255-7.

Bushman, Richard Lyman. The American Farmer in the Eighteenth Century: A Social and Cultural History (Yale UP, 2018), Material Culture, Vol. 52, Issue 1 (Spring 2020), 65-8.

Esbeck, Carl H. and Jonathan J. Den Hartog, eds. Disestablishment and Religion Dissent: church-state relations in the new American states, 1776-1833 (Missouri, 2019), Choice [57-3762], Vol. 57, Issue 11 (July 2020).

Israel, Jonathan. Democratic Enlightenment: Philosophy, Revolution, and Human Rights (Oxford UP, 2011), 1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era, Vol. 25 (2020), 263-5.

Senchyne, Jonathan. The Intimacy of Paper in early and nineteenth-century American literature (Massachusetts, 2019), Choice, Vol. 58, Issue 1 (September 2020).

Waldmann, Felix. ed. Further Letters of David Hume (Edinburgh Bibliographical Society, 2014), 1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era, Vol. 25 (2020), 276-7.

Washington, George. The papers of George Washington: 1 April-21 September 1796, Presidential series, v. 20, ed. by David R. Hoth and William M. Ferraro (Virginia, 2019), Choice [57-3448], Vol. 57, Issue 10 (June 2020).

*“History as Enchantment” [review of Rick Atkinson, ‘The British Are Coming’: The War for America, Lexington to Princeton, 1775-1777, Volume One of The Revolution Trilogy (Henry Holt, 2019)], “BOOKSHELF,” The Wall Street Journal, Wednesday, 3 July 2019. [Also published online as “‘The British Are Coming’ Review: History as Enchantment.”]

Brückner, Martin. The Social Life of Maps in America, 1750-1860 (U of North Carolina P, 2017), Material Culture, Vol. 51, Issue 2 (Fall 2019), 54-6.

Compagnon, Antoine. A Summer with Montaigne, trans. Tina Kover (Europa, 2019), Library Journal, Vol. 144, Issue 4.

Feltham, Oliver. Destroy and Liberate: political action on the basis of Hume (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019), Choice [57-1456], Vol. 57, Issue 4 (December 2019).

Garrett, Aaron and James A. Harris, eds. Scottish Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century: Volume I: Morals, Politics, Art, Religion (Oxford UP, 2015), Studies in Religion and the Enlightenment, Vol. 1, No. 2 (fall 2019), 28-32.

Griffin, Patrick. The Townshend Moment: The Making of Empire and Revolution in the Eighteenth Century (Yale UP, 2017), The Journal of American History, Vol. 106, Issue 3 (December 2019), 740-1.

Radcliffe, Elizabeth. Hume, passion, and action (OUP, 2018), Choice [56-3548], Vol. 56, Issue 9 (May 2019).

Saxine, Ian. Properties of Empire: Indians, Colonists, and Land Speculators on the New England Frontier (NYU Press, 2019), Choice [57-0291], Vol. 57, Issue 1 (September 2019).

Thomas, Richard Gough, William Godwin: a political life (Pluto, 2019), Choice [57-0301], Vol. 57, Issue 1 (September 2019).

*“Patriots of Vermont” [review of Christopher S. Wren, Those Turbulent Sons of Freedom: Ethan Allen’s Green Mountain Boys and the American Revolution (Simon & Schuster, 2018)], “BOOKSHELF,” The Wall Street Journal, Tuesday, 11 December 2018, A15. [Also published online as “‘Those Turbulent Sons of Freedom’ Review: Patriots of Vermont.”]

*“The Birthday of a New World” [review of John Ferling, Apostles of Revolution: Jefferson, Paine, Monroe, and the Struggle Against the Old Order in America and Europe (Bloomsbury, 2018)], “BOOKSHELF,” The Wall Street Journal, Tuesday, 3 July 2018, A13. [Also published online as “Apostles of Revolution Review: The Birthday of a New World.”]

*“Chasing shadows at twilight” [review of Marcus Rediker, The Fearless Benjamin Lay: The Quaker Dwarf who became the first Revolutionary Abolitionist (Penguin, 2017), and Virginia Anderson, The Martyr and the Traitor: Nathan Hale, Moses Dunbar, and the American Revolution (Oxford, 2017)], “Biography & History,” The Times Literary Supplement, 11 May 2018, 26-7.

*“The First Round of a Long Fight” [review of George C. Daughan, Lexington and Concord: The Battle Heard Round the World (Norton, 2018)], “BOOKSHELF,” The Wall Street Journal, Thursday, 19 April 2018, A15. [Also published online as “Lexington and Concord Review: The First Round of a Long Fight.”]

Anderson, Robert G. W., ed. Cradle of Chemistry: The Early Years of Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh (Edinburgh: John Donald, 2015), Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, “Resources: Book Reviews” (2018). [https://www.socantscot.org/resource/cradle-of-chemistry-the-early-years-of-chemistry-at-the-university-of-edinburgh-edited-by-robert-g-w-anderson/].

Clark, J.C.D. Thomas Paine: Britain, America, and France in the Age of Enlightenment and Revolution (OUP, 2018), Choice [56-0834], Vol. 56, Issue 2 (October 2018).

Crow, Matthew. Thomas Jefferson, Legal History, and the Art of Recollection (Cambridge, 2017), The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 84, issue 1 (Feb. 2018), 142-4.

Fogelin, Robert. Hume’s Presence in “The Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” (Oxford, 2017), International Journal for the Study of Skepticism, Vol. 8 (2018), 245-9.

Israel, Jonathan. The Expanding Blaze: How the American Revolution Ignited the World, 1775-1848 (Princeton UP, 2017), The Journal of the American Revolution, 16 February 2018 [https://allthingsliberty.com/2018/02/expanding-blaze-american-revolution-ignited-world-1775-1848/]

Norman, Jesse. Adam Smith: Father of Economics (Basic Books, 2018), The Library Journal, Vol. 143, Issue 13 (August 2018), 105.

*“American beaver: The hard work, and luck, of a revolutionary painter” [review of Jane Kamensky, A Revolution in Color: The World of John Singleton Copley (W.W. Norton, 2016)], “Biography,” The Times Literary Supplement, 4 August 2017, 32.

*“Harboring Grievances” [review of Eric Hinderaker, Boston’s Massacre (Belknap, 2017)], The Wall Street Journal, Saturday/Sunday, 11-12 March 2017, C7 [also published online as “The Blood Flowed on King Street”].

Denton, Robert E., Jr. & Benjamin Voth. Social Fragmentation and the Decline of American Democracy: The End of the Social Contract (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017), Cercles: Revue pluridisciplinaire du monde anglophone [http://www.cercles.com/review/CDE.html]

Du Rivage, Justin. Revolution Against Empire: Taxes, Politics, and the Origins of American Independence (Yale UP, 2017), Choice [55-1473], December 2017.

Mailer, Gideon. John Witherspoon’s American Revolution (U of North Carolina P, 2017), Choice [54-5741], August 2017.

Mortimer, Ian. The Time Traveler’s Guide to Restoration Britain: A Handbook for Visitors to the Seventeenth Century: 1660-1699 (Pegasus, 2017), Library Journal, vol. 142, issue 6 (2017), 96-7.

Purnell, Carolyn. The Sensational Past: How the Enlightenment changed the way we use our senses (Norton, 2016), Library Journal, Vol. 142, Issue 1, 103-4.

Rasmussen, Dennis C. The Infidel and the Professor: David Hume, Adam Smith, and the Friendship that Shaped Modern Thought (Princeton, 2017), Library Journal, Vol. 143, issue 12, 82-3.

Ryerson, Richard Alan. John Adams’s Republic: The One, The Few, and the Many (Johns Hopkins UP, 2016), Choice, 54.5 (Jan. 2017), 770.

Winterer, Caroline. American Enlightenments: Pursuing Happiness in the Age of Reason (Yale UP, 2016), Choice, 54.7 (Mar. 2017), 1076.

*“America’s First Freedom” [review of Richard Kluger, Indelible Ink: The Trials of John Peter Zenger and the Birth of America’s Free Press (W.W. Norton, 2016), The Wall Street Journal, 22 December 2016.

*“Apartheid in America” [review of Nicholas Guyatt, Bind Us Apart: How Enlightened Americans Invented Racial Segregation (Basic Books, 2016)], “BOOKSHELF,” The Wall Street Journal, Friday, 29 Apr. 2016, A11.

*“Calling the House to Order” [review of Fergus M. Bordewich, The First Congress: How James Madison, George Washington and a Group of Extraordinary Men Invented the Government (Simon and Schuster, 2016)], “BOOKS,” The Wall Street Journal, Saturday/Sunday, 13-14 Feb. 2016, C7.

*“The Spoils of Office” [review of Zephry Teachout, Corruption in America: From Benjamin Franklin’s snuff box to Citizens United (Harvard UP, 2014)], “Politics & History,” The Times Literary Supplement, 22 Jan. 2016, 5.

Bordewich, Fergus M. The First Congress: How James Madison, George Washington and a Group of Extraordinary Men Invented the Government (Simon and Schuster, 2016), Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, 54.3 (Nov. 2016), 435.

Brown, Michael. The Irish Enlightenment (Harvard UP, 2016), Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, 54.3 (Nov. 2016), 444.

Butterfield, Kevin. The Making of Tocqueville’s America: Law and Association in the Early United States (U of Chicago Press, 2015), The Journal of American History, 103.3 (December 2016), 749–50 [https://doi.org/10.1093/jahist/jaw372].

Dixon, John M. The Enlightenment of Cadwallader Colden: Empire, Science, and Intellectual Culture in British New York (Cornell UP, 2016), Enlightenment and Dissent 31 (2016), 104-7.

Gottlieb, Anthony. The Dream of Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Philosophy (W.W. Norton, 2016), The Library Journal 141, no. 11 (June 2016), 76-7.

Hanley, Ryan Patrick, ed. Adam Smith: His Life, Thought, and Legacy (Princeton UP, 2016), Library Journal 141, no. 1 (Jan. 2016), 109-10.

Harris, James A. Hume: An Intellectual Biography (Cambridge UP, 2015), Choice 53, no. 8 (Apr. 2016), 1179.

Jones, Tom. ed. Alexander Pope: An Essay on Man (Princeton UP, 2016), The Library Journal 141, no. 9 (May 2016), 79.

Mallock, Daniel L. Agony and Eloquence: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and a World of Revolution (Skyhorse, 2016), Choice [54-0339], Sept. 2016.

*“Your Papers, Please” [review of Nathan Perl-Rosenthal, Citizen Sailors: Becoming American in the Age of Revolution (Harvard UP, 2015)], “BOOKSHELF,” The Wall Street Journal, Monday, 26 Oct. 2015, A15.

*“Philadelphia Was Far Away” [review of Kathleen DuVal, Independence Lost: Lives on the Edge of the American Revolution (Random House, 2015)], “BOOKSHELF,” The Wall Street Journal, Monday, 24 Aug. 2015, A11.

*“Generous Tears” [review of Eric Nelson, The Royalist Revolution: Monarchy and the American Founding (Belknap Press of Harvard, 2014)], “Law & History,” The Times Literary Supplement, 13 Mar. 2015, 23.

Farquhar, Michael, Bad Days in History: A Gleefully Grim Chronicle of Misfortune, Mayhem, and Misery for Every Day of the Year (National Geographic, 2015), Library Journal [Xpress Reviews], 27 Feb. 2015.

Fleming, Thomas, The Great Divide: The Conflict Between Washington and Jefferson That Defined a Nation (Da Capo, 2015), Library Journal 140, no. 4 (Mar. 2015), 98.

Fulford, Tim, and Kevin Hutchings, eds. Native Americans and Anglo-American Culture, 1750-1850: The Indian Atlantic (Cambridge UP, 2009), Notes & Queries, 2015 doi:10.1093/notesj/gjv007.

Hill, Mike and Warren Montag, The Other Adam Smith (Stanford UP, 2015), Enlightenment and Dissent 30 (2015), 126-9.

Jenkins, William, Between Raid and Rebellion: The Irish in Buffalo and Toronto, 1867-1919 (McGill-Queens, 2013), University of Toronto Quarterly, “Letters in Canada 2013,” 84, no. 3 (Summer 2015), 159-60.

Knott, Stephen, F., and Tony Williams, Washington and Hamilton: The Alliance that Forged America (Sourcebooks, 2015), Library Journal 140, no. 14 (Sept. 2015), 121.

Morris, Marc, King John: Treachery and Tyranny in Medieval England: The Road to Magna Carta (Pegasus, 2015), Library Journal, 140, no. 14 (Sept. 2015), 118.

Sheehan, Jonathan, and Dror Wahrman, Invisible Hands: Self-Organization and the Eighteenth Century (Chicago UP, 2015), Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries [53-1412] (Nov. 2015).

Stewart, Carol, The Eighteenth-Century Novel and the Secularization of Ethics (Ashgate, 2010), Notes & Queries (2015) doi:10.1093/notesj/gjv021.

Wolloch, Nathaniel, History and Nature in the Enlightenment: Praise of the Mastery of Nature in Eighteenth-Century Historical Literature (Ashgate, 2011), Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 38, no. 2 (2015), 297-8.

*“World Turned Wrong Way Up” [review of Andrew O’Shaughnessy, The Men Who Lost America: British Leadership, the American Revolution, and the Fate of the Empire (Yale UP, 2013)], “History,” The Times Literary Supplement, 17 Jan. 2014, 10.

Bunker, Nick, An Empire on the Edge: How Britain Came to Fight America (Random House, 2014), Library Journal 139, no. 14 (Sept. 2014), 118.

Dyson, Stephen, L., The Last Amateur: The Life of William J. Stillman (Excelsior/SUNY, 2014), Choice [52-2336] (2014).

Hunt, Tristram, Cities of Empire: The British Colonies and the Creation of the Urban World (Allen Lane, 2014), Library Journal 139, no. 17 (Oct. 2014), 104.

LaCroix, Alison L. The Ideological Origins of American Federalism (Harvard UP, 2010), ECCB: The Eighteenth Century Current Bibliography: 2010 36 (2014).

Newman, Simon P., and Peter S. Onuf, eds. Paine and Jefferson in the Age of Revolutions (Virginia UP, 2013), Choice [52-0465], 52, no. 1 (2014), 147.

Rakove, Jack. Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010), ECCB: The Eighteenth Century Current Bibliography: 2010 36 (2014)

Roberts, Justin, Slavery and the Enlightenment in the British Atlantic, 1750-1807 (Cambridge UP, 2013), Choice [51-2796] (Jan. 2014).

Shankman, Andrew, ed. The World of the Revolutionary American Republic: Land, Labor, and the Conflict for a Continent (Routledge, 2014), Choice 52, no. 2 (Oct. 2014), 332.

Uglow, Jenny, In These Times: Living in Britain Through Napoleon’s Wars, 1793-1815 (Faber and Faber, 2014), Library Journal 139, no. 20 (Dec. 2014), 117.

Warner, William B., Protocols of Liberty: Communication innovation and the American Revolution (Chicago UP, 2013), Choice [51-4653] (Apr. 2014).

Griffin, Patrick, America’s Revolution (Oxford UP, 2013), Choice [50-4037] (Mar. 2013).

Hanley, Ryan Patrick, Adam Smith and the Character of Virtue (Cambridge UP, 2009), ECCB: The Eighteenth Century Current Bibliography: 2009 35 (2013).

Kett, Joseph F., Merit: The History of a Founding Ideal from the American Revolution to the Twenty-First Century (Cornell UP, 2013), Choice [51-0463] (Sept. 2013).

Norton, David Fate, and Jacqueline Taylor, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Hume, second edition (Cambridge UP, 2009), ECCB: 2009 35 (2013).

Shuffelton, Frank, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Jefferson (Cambridge UP, 2009), ECCB: 2009 35 (2013).

Thompson, Peter, and Peter S. Onuf, eds. State and Citizen: British America and the Early United States (Virginia UP, 2013), Choice [51-2287] (Nov. 2013).

*“Under the Southern Cross, [review of David Hackett Fischer, Fairness and Freedom: A History of Two Open Societies, New Zealand and the United States (Oxford UP, 2012)],” “History,” The Times Literary Supplement, 21 & 28 Dec. 2012, 34.

Canny, Nicholas, and Philip Morgan, eds. The Oxford Handbook of The Atlantic World, 1450-1850 (Oxford UP, 2011), Choice [49-2820] (Jan. 2012).

Dungan, Nicholas, Gallatin: America’s Swiss Founding Father (New York UP, 2010), Swiss American Historical Society Review 48 (Feb. 2012), 40-3.

Fea, John, Way of improvement leads home: Philip Vickers Fithian and the rural Enlightenment in Early America (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2008), “Section III: Philosophy, Science, and Religion,” ECCB: The Eighteenth Century Current Bibliography: 2008 34 (2012), 226-7.

Gregg, Stephen H., Defoe’s Writings and Manliness: Contrary Men (Ashgate, 2009), Notes and Queries, vol. 257 [new series, vol. 59], no. 2 (June 2012), 275-7 [doi:10.1093/notesj/gjs055].

Gross, Robert A., and Mary Kelley, eds. A History of the Book in America: Vol. 2: An Extensive Republic: Print, Culture, and Society in the New Nation (U of North Carolina Press in Association with the American Antiquarian Society, 2010), Material Culture, 44, no. 1 (Spring 2012), 95-7.

Hayes, Kevin J., and Isabella Bour, eds. Franklin in His Own Time: A Biographical Chronicle of His Life, Drawn from Recollections, Interviews, and Memoirs by Family, Friends, and Associates (U of Iowa Press, 2011), Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 35, no. 4 (2012), 606-7.

Johnston, James H., From Slave Ship to Harvard: Yarrow Mamout and the History of an African American Family (Fordham UP, 2012), Library Journal 137, no. 4 (Mar. 2012), 105.

Kierner, Cynthia A., Martha Jefferson Randolph, Daughter of Monticello: Her Life and Times (U of North Carolina Press, 2012), Library Journal 137, no. 6 (Apr. 2012), 83.

Murphy, Paul Thomas, Shooting Victoria: Madness, Mayhem and the Rebirth of the British Monarch (Pegasus, 2012), Library Journal 137, no. 12 (July 2012), 92-3.

O’Neill, Jean, and Elizabeth P. McLean, Peter Collinson and the Eighteenth-Century Natural History Exchange (American Philosophical Society, 2008), ECCB: 2008, “Section III: Philosophy, Science, and Religion,” 34 (2012), 254-6.

Rosenfeld, Sophia, Common Sense: A Political History (Harvard UP, 2011), Choice [49-2824] Jan. 2012.

Rosenfeld, Sophia Common Sense: A Political History (Harvard UP, 2011), Isis: Journal of the History of Science Society 103, no. 2 (June 2012), 433-4.

Sullivan, Robert, My American Revolution: Crossing the Delaware and I-78 (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012), Library Journal 137, no. 17 (Oct. 2012), 86-7.

Tarter, Michele Lise, and Richard Bell, Buried Lives: Incarcerated in Early America (U of Georgia Press, 2012), Choice [50-1041] (Oct. 2012).

*“Father Figures” [review of John Ferling, Independence: The Struggle to set America Free (Bloomsbury Press, 2011)], “History,” Literary Review (Nov. 2011), 28-9.

*Barker-Benfield, G. J., Abigail and John Adams: the Americanization of sensibility (U of Chicago Press, 2010), “Biography,” The Times Literary Supplement, 5 Aug. 2011, 23.

*“When Plants Made the Nation [review of Andrea Wulf, The Founding Gardeners: How the Revolutionary Generation created an American Eden (William Heinemann, 2011)],” “History,” The Times Literary Supplement, 18 Mar. 2011, 27.

Barker-Benfield, G. J., Abigail and John Adams: the Americanization of sensibility (U of Chicago Press, 2010), Choice [48-6470] (July 2011).

Baron, Robert C., and Conrad Edick Wright, eds. The Libraries, Leadership, & Legacy of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson (Fulcrum with Massachusetts Historical Society, 2010), The Library: Transactions of the Bibliographical Society 12 (Dec. 2011), 433-4.

Beauchamp, Tom, ed. David Hume: A Dissertation on the Passions The Natural History of Religion (Oxford UP, 2007), “Section III: Philosophy, Science, and Religion,” ECCB: The Eighteenth Century Current Bibliography: 2007 33 (2011), 265-7.

Casper, Scott E., Jeffrey D. Groves, Stephen W. Nissenbaum, and Michael Winship, eds. A History of the Book in America, Volume 3: The Industrial Book, 1840-1880 (U of North Carolina Press with the American Antiquarian Society, 2007), Material Culture 43, no. 1 (Spring 2011), 114-7.

Ellis, Joseph J., First Family, Abigail & John Adams (Knopf, 2010), Choice [48-6470] (July 2011).

Graham, Roderick, The Great Infidel: A Life of David Hume (Tuckwell, 2004), The Scottish Historical Review 90, no. 1 (Apr. 2011), 151-3.

Howard, Thomas Albert, God and the Atlantic: America, Europe, and the Religious Divide (Oxford UP, 2010), Choice [49-1667] (Nov. 2011).

Israel, Jonathan, A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy (Princeton UP, 2010), History of Intellectual Culture 9, no. 1 (2010/2011).

Ragosta, John A., Wellspring of Liberty: How Virginia’s Religious Dissenters Helped Win the American Revolution and Secured Religious Liberty (Oxford UP, 2010), Choice [48-3472] (Feb. 2011).

Rana, Aziz, The Two Faces of American Freedom (Harvard UP, 2010), Choice [48-5878] (June 2011).

Ryan, William R., The World of Thomas Jeremiah: Charles Town on the Eve of the American Revolution (Oxford UP, 2010), Choice [48-3478] (Feb. 2011).

Schecter, Barnet, George Washington’s America: A Biography Through His Maps (Walker, 2010), Choice [48-7119] (Aug. 2011).

Tolles, Bryant F., Jr., Architecture and Academe: College Buildings in New England Before 1860 (UP of New England, 2011), Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 70, no. 4 (Dec. 2011), 545-6.

Towsey, Mark R. M., Reading the Scottish Enlightenment: Books and their Readers in Provincial Scotland, 1750-1800 (Brill, 2010), Enlightenment and Dissent 27 (2011), 195-8.

Wright, John P., Hume’s A Treatise of Human Nature: An Introduction. Cambridge Introductions to Key Philosophical Texts (Cambridge UP, 2009), Enlightenment and Dissent 27 (2011), 204-8.

*“Foremost American” [review of Ron Chernow, Washington: A Life (Penguin, 2010)], “Biography,” The Times Literary Supplement, 24 & 31 Dec. 2010, 7.

*Woodward, Walter, Prospero’s America: John Winthrop Jr., Alchemy and the Creation of New England Culture, 1606-1676 (U of North Carolina Press for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2010), “In Brief,” The Times Literary Supplement, 7 May 2010, 27.

Bernstein, R. B., The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (Oxford UP, 2009), Choice [47-3995] (Mar. 2010).

Bober, Natalie S., Thomas Jefferson: Draftsman of a Nation (U of Virginia Press, 2007), Journal of Historical Biography 7 (Spring 2010), 155-7.

Carpenter, Kenneth E., The Dissemination of The Wealth of Nations in French and in France, 1776-1843 (Oak Knoll Books for The Bibliographical Society of America, 2002), The Scottish Historical Review 89, no. 1 (2010), 117-9.

Ferreira-Buckley, Linda, and S. Michael Halloran, eds. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres, by Hugh Blair (Southern Illinois UP, 2005), The Scottish Historical Review, 89, no. 1 (2010), 116-7.

Filonowicz, Joseph Duke, Fellow-Feeling and the Moral Life (Cambridge UP, 2008), Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (Jan. 2010), 110-11.

Kelley, Donald R., Faces of History: Historical Inquiry from Herodotus to Herder (Yale UP, 1998), Eighteenth-Century Book Reviews On-line, posted Mar. 2010.

Macintyre, Gordone, Dugald Stewart: The Pride and Ornament of Scotland (Sussex Academic Press, 2003), Scottish Literary Review 2, no. 2 (Autumn/Winter 2010), 142-4.

Mulford, Carla, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Benjamin Franklin (Cambridge UP, 2008), Choice [47-2753] (Jan. 2010).

Richards, Jeffrey H., and Sharon M. Harris, eds. Mercy Otis Warren: Selected Letters (U of Georgia Press, 2009), Choice [47-3385] (Feb. 2010).

Sigurdson, Richard, Jacob Burckhardt’s Social and Political Thought (U of Toronto Press, 2004), History of Intellectual Culture 8, no. 1 (2008/2009): http://www.ucalgary.ca/hic/files/hic/Spencer%20on%20Sigurdson.pdf

Stauber, Leland G., The American Revolution: A Grand Mistake (Prometheus, 2010), Choice [48-1075] (Oct. 2010).

Wilson, David B., Seeking Nature’s Logic: Natural Philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment (Pennsylvania State UP, 2009), Journal of British Studies 49 (Oct. 2010), 889-90.

Wood, Gordon S., Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789-1815 (Oxford UP, 2009), Choice [47-4632] (Apr. 2010).

Burchell, Kenneth W., ed. Thomas Paine and America, 1776-1809, 6 vols (Pickering & Chatto, 2009), Choice [47-1633] (Nov. 2009).

Dahlstrom, Neil, and Jeremy Dahlstrom, The John Deere Story: A Biography of Plowmakers John and Charles Deere (Northern Illinois UP, 2005), Material Culture 41 (Spring 2009), 108-10.

Matthews, Steven, Theology and Science in the Thought of Bacon (Ashgate, 2008), Seventeenth-Century News 67 (2009), 163-6.

Sher, Richard B., The Enlightenment and the Book: Scottish Authors & Their Publishers in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Ireland & America (U of Chicago Press, 2006), The Scriblerian and the Kit-Cats 41, no. 2 (Spring 2009), 229-31.

Torre, Jose, R., ed. The Enlightenment in America, 1720-1825, 4 vols (Pickering & Chatto, 2008), Enlightenment and Dissent 25 (2009), 334-9.

Zelner, Kyle, A Rabble in Arms: Massachusetts Towns and Militiamen During King Philip’s War (New York UP, 2009), Choice [46-7016] (Aug. 2009).

Russell, Paul, The Riddle of Hume’s ‘Treatise’: Skepticism, Naturalism, and Irreligion (Oxford UP, 2008), Enlightenment and Dissent 24 (2008), 135-8.

Walmsley, Peter, Locke’s Essay and the Rhetoric of Science (Bucknell UP, 2003), Seventeenth-Century News 66 (2008), 170-3.

Frasca-Spada, Marina, and P. J. E. Kail, eds. Impressions of Hume (Clarendon, 2005), British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 30 (Mar. 2007), 137-8.

Gibson, Alan, Interpreting the Founding: Guide to the Enduring Debates over the Origins and Foundations of the American Republic (UP of Kansas, 2006), Eighteenth-Century Scotland, no. 21 (Spring 2007), 27-8.

Schmidt, Claudia, David Hume: Reason in History (Pennsylvania State UP, 2003), The Scottish Historical Review 86 (Apr. 2007), 148-9.

Moore, Terrence O., Jr, ed. Observations upon Liberal Education. By George Turnbull (Liberty Fund, 2003), The Scottish Historical Review 84 (Oct. 2005), 286-7.

Brown, Michael, Francis Hutcheson in Dublin, 1719-30: The Crucible of his Thought (Four Courts, 2002), The British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (Spring 2004), 127-8.

Champion, Justin, Republican Learning: John Toland and the Crisis of Christian Culture, 1696-1722 (Manchester UP, 2003), The British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (Autumn 2004), 296-7.

Garrett, Aaron, ed. An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions and Affections, with Illustrations on the Moral Sense. By Francis Hutcheson (Liberty Fund, 2003), The Scottish Historical Review 83 (Oct. 2004), 256-7.

Owens, W. R., and P.N. Furbank, eds. Defoe’s Writings on Travel, Discovery and History, 8 vols (Pickering & Chatto, 2002), The Scottish Historical Review 83 (Apr. 2004), 105-8.

Stanistreet, Paul, Hume’s Scepticism and the Science of Human Nature (Ashgate, 2002), The Scottish Historical Review 83 (Oct. 2004), 257-8.

Wertz, Spencer K., Between Hume’s Philosophy and History: Historical Theory and Practice (UP of America, 1999), Hume Studies 30 (Apr. 2004), 198-200.

*“Getting Acquainted With Ben Franklin” [review of Edmund S. Morgan, Benjamin Franklin (Yale UP, 2002)], Books in Canada 23 (Sept. 2003), 29, 33.

Amory, Hugh, and David D. Hall, eds. A History of the Book in America. vol. I, The Colonial Book in the Atlantic World (Cambridge UP, 2000), The Scottish Historical Review 82 (Apr. 2003), 151-2.

Beauchamp, Tom, ed. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. By David Hume. The Clarendon Edition of The Works of David Hume (Oxford UP, 2000), The British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 26 (Spring 2003), 141-3.

Dudley, Wade G., Splintering the Wooden Wall: The British Blockade of the United States, 1812-1815 (Naval Institute, 2003), Journal of the Early Republic 23, no. 3 (Fall 2003), 467-9.

Earman, John, Hume’s Abject Failure: The Argument Against Miracles (Oxford UP, 2000), The British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 26 (Spring 2003), 133.

Freeman, Joanne B., Affairs of Honor: National Politics in the New Republic (Yale UP, 2001), Eighteenth-Century Book Reviews On-Line (2003).

Israel, Jonathan, Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750 (Oxford UP, 2001), Seventeenth-Century News 6 (Spring-Summer 2003), 64-9.

Looser, Devoney, British Women Writers and the Writing of History, 1670-1820 (Johns Hopkins UP, 2000), Eighteenth-Century Book Reviews On-line (2003).

McDonald, Gerald D., Stuart C. Sherman, and Mary T. Russo, compilers, A Checklist of American Newspaper Carriers’ Addresses, 1720-1820 (American Antiquarian Society, 2000), Libraries & Culture 38 (Winter 2003), 88-9.

Raven, James, London Booksellers and American Customers: Transatlantic Literary Community and the Charleston Library Society, 1748-1811 (U of South Carolina Press, 2002), The American Historical Review 108 (Apr. 2003), 483-4.

Stevenson, David, The First Freemasons: Scotland’s Early Lodges and Their Members (1988 2nd edition, Grand Lodge of Scotland, 2001) and David Stevenson, The Beggar’s Benison: Sex Clubs of Enlightenment Scotland and Their Rituals (Tuckwell, 2001), The Scottish Historical Review 82 (Oct. 2003), 317-8.

“Civic Republican and Critical Modernist” [review of James P. Young, Henry Adams: The Historian as Political Theorist (UP of Kansas, 2001)], The Review of Politics 64 (Fall 2002), 752-4.

Aldridge, A. Owen, The Dragon and the Eagle: The Presence of China in the American Enlightenment (Wayne State UP, 1993), Special Issue in honour of A. Owen Aldridge, Tamkang Review: A Quarterly of Comparative Studies of Chinese and Foreign Literatures 31 & 32 (Summer-Autumn 2001), 263-6.

Andrews, Dee E., The Methodists and Revolutionary America, 1760-1800: The Shaping of Evangelical Culture (Princeton UP, 2000), Canadian Journal of History 36 (Dec. 2001), 593-5.

Hicks, Philip, Neoclassical History and English Culture: From Clarendon to Hume (St. Martin’s/MacMillan, 1996), ASECS Book Reviews On-line (May 2001).

Owen, David W. D., ed. Hume: General Philosophy (Ashgate, 2000), Scottish Studies Review 2 (Autumn 2001), 146-7.

Phillips, Mark Salber, Society and Sentiment: Genres of Historical Writing in Britain, 1740-1820 (Princeton UP, 2000), Hume Studies 27 (Apr. 2001), 186-90.

Fieser, James., ed. Early Responses to Hume’s Moral, Literary and Political Writings. vol. I. Hume’s Moral Philosophy. vol. II. Hume’s Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, 2 vols (Thoemmes, 1999), Eighteenth-Century Scotland, no. 14 (Spring 2000), 23.

Scholarly lectures, conference papers, and seminar presentations:

Professor Spencer has presented his work to various scholarly communities in Belgium, Brazil, Canada, England, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Scotland, Sweden, and the United States. His venues have included the University of Nevada (2019) University of Edinburgh (2019) University of Glasgow (2018) Brown University (2017) Minneapolis, MN (2017) Brock University (2017) Pittsburgh, PA (2016) Stockholm University (2015) Montreal, QC (2014) Portland State University (2014) Brock University (2014) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil (2013) University of South Carolina (2012) The Old College, Edinburgh University (2011) Université Paris Sorbonne [Paris IV] (2010) Institute Charles V, Université Paris Diderot [Paris VII] (2010) University of Antwerp (2010) Dalhousie University and The University of King’s College (2009) The University of Malta Center, Xewkija, Gozo, Malta (2009) Athens Institute for Education and Research, Greece (2008) Hólar University College, Iceland (2008) Dalhousie University (2008) San Francisco, CA (2007) Dartmouth College (2007) Princeton Theological Seminary (2007) Montreal, QC (2006) Harvard University (2005) Brock University (2004) Boston, MA (2004) Trinity College Dublin (2004) University of Guelph (2003) Brock University (2002) University of Toronto (2002) Michigan State University (2000) Harvard University (2000) Huron University College (1998) University of Stirling (1998) Newnham College, Cambridge University (1998) University of Utrecht (1998) University of Edinburgh (1998) Vanderbilt University (1997) The University of Western Ontario (1997) The University of Michigan (1996) The College of William and Mary (1995).

Terrence Spencer - History

Where Abraham Lincoln Spent his Formative Years 1816 - 1830

Spencer County Public Library
210 Walnut Street
Rockport, IN 47635
Phone: 812-649-4866 Meetings

Our meetings are held the first Tuesday of the month, as needed, at the Rockport Library at 6:30 PM. Meetings subject to current Covid-19 regulations.

Historical Events and Holidays

July 2, 1936 &ndash Second dedication of expanded Lincoln Pioneer Village.

July 4, 1935 &ndash Lincoln Pioneer Village dedicated.

July 4, 1958 &ndash Rockport JC's re-enact Lincoln's flatboat trip to New Orleans.

July 6, 1860 &ndash Newtonville Post Office Established - George Totten First Postmaster

July 7, 1861 &ndash Indiana 25th leaves lower landing in Rockport to engage in the Civil War.

July 7, 1837 &ndash Rockport Weekly Gazette published by Thomas J. Langdon.

July 8, 1852 &ndash New Boston Post Office Established - Thomas Phillips First Postmaster

July 8, 1850 &ndash New Hope Post Office Established - William Harris First Postmaster

July 10, 1860 &ndash Buffaloville Post Office Established, Name changed from Buffalo - William Bench First Postmaster

July 11, 1859 &ndash Rockport Collegiate Institute cornerstone laid.

July 14, 1921 &ndash New Spencer County Courthouse dedicated.

July 17, 1943 &ndash Spencer County's last Civil War veteran, David J. Smith, dies at age 95.

July 21, 1875 &ndash Patronville Post Office Established - Edward Harrison First Postmaster

July 24, 1900 &ndash Electric lights turned on in Chrisney, Indiana.

2020 - 2021 Officers
President - Steve Sisley
Vice-President - Duane Walter
Secretary/Treasurer - Patricia Dawson
Contact - Raymond Dawson, [email protected]

Membership is open to all and dues are $20.00 per year per person from August 1 to July 31. Membership may be taken out at any time. Mail your name, address, e-mail (not required) and research interest (if any) to:

Spencer County Historical Society
Spencer County Public Library
210 Walnut Street
Rockport, IN 47635-1398
Phone: 812-649-4866

Web Site Mission Statement

The mission of the Spencer County History web site is to provide current information to our patrons concerning the operation of the Spencer County Historical Society and the history of the South Spencer County School Corporation.

The Spencer County History web page is a creation of Raymond and Patricia Dawson with technical help from their son. It has not been officially sanctioned by the Spencer County Historical Society. It is an attempt to provide information to the public about the Society and to make available our research on the schools in the southern half of the county.

Company History

The Spencer Turbine Company was founded in Hartford, Connecticut in 1892 by Ira Hobart Spencer. One of America’s legendary inventors and entrepreneurs, Ira started a corporate dynasty by solving a tedious problem: manually pumping the pipe organ in his church every Sunday.

Figuring there must be a better way, he invented a water-powered hydraulic engine to pump air. Soon, he had a flourishing business installing water motors for church organs. When electricity arrived, he switched to electric motors. His products were called Orgoblos, coined from “organ blowers.” To this day, we continue to furnish spare parts for some of the early Orgoblos that are still in service.

Spencer’s Next Engineering Edge – Multistage Centrifugal Blowers

Ira’s experiments with air handling led, in 1905, to introduction of the Turbine Vacuum Cleaner and formation of The Spencer Turbine Cleaner Company (separate from The Organ Power Company). In 1918, a milestone year, the two merged into The Spencer Turbine Company, which introduced its first multistage centrifugal blower – the most important engineering concept of Spencer’s first century.

Our oldest multistage models are the standard overhung (SOH) and four-bearing overhung (4BOH) machines, both of which proudly carry our trademarked “sugar scoop” housing profile. These are among Spencer’s oldest products, so the sugar scoop profile is your visual assurance of genuine Spencer quality that has endured for more than a century.

The year 1918 also saw a relocation from Hartford to West Hartford into larger quarters. During its 57 years in that plant, Spencer emerged as a world-leading manufacturer of centrifugal blowers, exhausters, vacuum systems, gas boosters, pneumatic conveying systems and wastewater treatment blowers.


T-Bo: Hey, can I help you?
Spencer: Yeah, I need four large smoothies, make two of 'em, strawberry splats and.
T-Bo: You want some bagels?
Spencer: What?
T-Bo: We sell bagels now. (iDate a Bad Boy)

T-Bo: Here's your smoothie.
Sam: Thanks.
T-Bo: You want a bagel with that?
Sam: Don't start with me. (iDate a Bad Boy)

[T-Bo walks up to Freddie holding a stick of pickles]
T-Bo: Would the gentleman care for a pickle?
Freddie: Uh, no, I don't want a pickle.
T-Bo: Why? You afraid of pickles? Scared to take a walk on the pickle side of town?
Freddie: No. I just think that pickles and smoothies don't really go together.
T-Bo: Oh. Well, pardon me for thinkin' that all foods and beverages could get along. (iTwins)

T-Bo: Hey man, what's your deal?
Spencer: My deal?
T-Bo: You hung out here all day yesterday, in your robe and slippers, and all day today and you haven't bought a thing. (iCook)

T-Bo: Cool. Now, buy a smoothie or get out! (iCook)

[T-Bo holds bell peppers on a stick]
T-Bo: Just buy a bell pepper.
Carly: No!
T-Bo: Four fifty.
Carly: T-Bo! (iSpeed Date)

[T-Bo walks up to Freddie, interrupting his speech]
T-Bo: You wanna buy a donut?
Freddie: No, we're having a meeting.
Sam: Why'd you stick the donuts on that way?
T-Bo: What are you sayin'?
Freddie: Well, they're donuts. They have a hole right in the middle.
Sam: But you put the stick through the sides.
T-Bo: Man, this is embarrassing. (iHave My Principals)

Sam: We want a table that's as far away from them as possible. [points to Carly, Freddie and Dave]
T-Bo: Have I ever cared where you sit? (iQuit iCarly)

Sam: I'll say I'm sorry to Carly right after T-Bo graduates from medical school.
T-Bo: I happen to be a doctor of smoothie-ology. (iQuit iCarly)

T-Bo: What did the goat do?
Carly: T-Bo! (iGot A Hot Room)

[Carly walks into the Groovy Smoothie]
Carly: Mornin', T-Bo.
T-Bo Uh-uh. I'm your boss now. You gotta call me Mister Bo.
Carly: Mister Bo?
T-Bo: Nah, I'm just pullin' your peach. Why don't you shake your tailfeather and get over there and start juicin' these tangerines? (iGot A Hot Room)

[Carly walks towards the bathroom]
T-Bo: Hey, where are you goin'?
Carly: To wash my hands before I start touching the fruit.
T-Bo: What, is the queen comin'? (iGot A Hot Room)

Carly: Okay, I cleaned the juicer ports.
T-Bo: What?!
Carly: You told me to clean the juicer ports.
T-Bo: No, I said to read the juice reports.
Carly: What is a juice report?
T-Bo: It's part of the fruit newsletter. (iGot A Hot Room)

T-Bo: Aw, c'mon, Carly. So your room burned down. Look at the bright side.
[Carly stares at T-Bo]
Carly: What's the bright side?!
T-Bo: Anyway. Here's a basket of tacos, and here's a stick. Put the tacos on the stick, then walk around and try to sell 'em. (iGot A Hot Room)

T-Bo: Oh, man. That dude took over 300 bucks. Jerk. (iSam's Mom)

[T-Bo walks up to the iCarly gang with chicken pot pies on a stick]
T-Bo: Who wants a chicken pot pie?
Freddie: No thanks.
Carly: Not me.
Sam: Shut up, T-Bo. (iSell Penny Tees)

T-Bo: Okay, nobody calls me Terrance! I am T-Bo! T-Bo. I'm not fancy. I don't talk like this. I sling smoothies! I put food on sticks! And I like a lot of women! (iStill Psycho)

Mrs. Benson: O-okay! Where are you going?!
T-Bo: To get my seven dollar bottle of Jamaica my hair so silky! (iStill Psycho)

Evolution and Natural Selection

According to Darwin’s theory of evolution, only the plants and animals best adapted to their environment will survive to reproduce and transfer their genes to the next generation. Animals and plants that are poorly adapted to their environment will not survive to reproduce.

Charles Darwin published his notions on natural selection and the theory of evolution in his influential 1859 book On the Origin of Species.

Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was a scientific theory focused on explaining his observations about biological diversity and why different species of plants and animals look different.

Our Path to the Present

Spencer was a twenty-seven-year-old graduate student in sociology at the University of Chicago when he founded SRA, the educational publishing firm that provided the basis of his wealth and ultimately made possible the creation of the Spencer Foundation. 1961: SRA became publicly owned.

Lyle Spencer's Presentation to House Subcommittee on Education - March 3, 1962.

"It is as a businessman rather than as an educator that I wish to speak to you today. In my judgment, hard-minded, sensible investments in education research can provide the most effective single method of strengthening our schools. Judicious expenditures for this purpose are justified not by idealism or scholarly enthusiasm in my view, but by the fact that they will pay for themselves many times over as educational investments."

Spencer Foundation Articles of Incorporation - April 27, 1962.

Spencer Foundation's first Board Meeting - October 24, 1962.

Lyle M. Spencer elected as Chair/President.

Charles Dollard, Vice President.

Harlow E. Bowes, Secretary/Treasurer.

SRA was acquired by IBM.

IBM purchases Science Research Associates for $55 million.

Prior to his death, Spencer sketched out his hopes for the Foundation…

Among the papers found after his death was a note in which he set out in his own words his hopes and purpose for the Foundation.

"All the Spencer dough was earned improbably from education. It makes sense, therefore, that most of this money should be returned eventually to investigating ways in which education can be improved, around the world. Broadly conceived, wherever learning occurs."

Lyle M. Spencer died of pancreatic cancer at the age of 57 on August 22, 1968.

Upon Lyle Spencer's death he bequeathed the bulk of his estate to the Foundation, enabling it to begin its major work. Board members Charles Dollard and Ralph Tyler began preparations for the Foundation to be created. Charles Dollard served as the President of record from 1968 until 1970. He also served as Board Chair 1968-1975. H. Thomas James was hired as the 1st President in 1970 and served until 1985.

The Foundation received an initial distribution from Spencer's estate totaling $43 million. The foundation's first two grant awards mark, what would become, a lasting commitment to the training and development of junior scholars.

By 1973 the bulk of the estate had been received and totalled $79 million by 1982 when the final distributions were completed the endowment from Lyle Spencer totalled just over $82 million.

The first two grants of the Foundation were awarded January 1971 and were to support junior researchers:

The first for $163,500 over three years, was awarded to the National Academy of Education to select, supervise, and support Academy Associates and Fellows and the second, $450,000 over three years, to five universities to be selected by the President for "young scholars working on problems related to education."

H. Thomas James' comments about the Foundation's focus in the 1971 Annual Report…

"Critical inquiry into the processes of learning and into educational practices is badly needed in our time. [Consequently], the Foundation will seek out and fund those efforts that seem to offer the greatest promise of increasing our understanding of the learning process and of developing pedagogical theory that can guide the efforts of educators at all levels."

In the 1972 Annual Report, H. Thomas James established three primary pillars for the Foundation's grant making.

1. Seed grants to attract young scholars from the disciplines to study education

2. Major grants to direct support to individuals or teams through the institutions with which they were affiliated

3. Institutional development grants to institutions to increase their ability to do research in the behavioral aspects of education.

Frank Bixby elected Chair in April 1975 and served in that role until January 1990.

Frank L. Bixby was a lawyer in the Chicago office of Sidley Austin Brown & Wood with a concentration in estate planning, foundations, and estate administration. Frank served as counsel to Lyle Spencer and subsequently as a Director of the Spencer Foundation for thirty-three years.

Development of the Good Neighbor Program.

The Good Neighbor program provided a line of funding for action-oriented projects in the Chicago area that were not limited to scholarly research but remained closely related to the Foundation's mission. The foundation's second president, Lawrence Cremin, described the program this way, "What would be special about Good Neighbor projects was not any lessening of academic or professional quality but rather a broadening of the definition of what might be seen as quality within program. Good Neighbor projects are within the domain of the Foundation&rsquos general expertise, but they include a broader array of applied research, evaluation, and information gathering than would be appropriate under our regular grant program. That breadth enables us to join other foundations in contributing to worthy causes in the city of Chicago &ndash to pay our dues so to speak&hellip".

Lawrence Cremin elected to be the 2nd President. He served as president until his death in 1990.

Lawrence A. Cremin joined the Board of Directors in 1973 and served as the Foundation&rsquos 2nd President from April 1985 until his death in September 1990. He was a teacher and a scholar. In addition to serving as President, he was the Frederick A.P. Barnard Professor of Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he had served on its faculty for forty-two years, and as its President for ten years. During his time at Spencer he expanded the Foundation&rsquos program by bringing his view of education as occurring not only in schools but also in families, in museums and other cultural institutions, in the work place, in civic organizations, and through electronic as well as printed media. He encouraged scholars in many disciplines of the social sciences to look to the Foundation for support of their research on education and learning. He established the Foundation&rsquos predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowship programs to encourage young scholars to pursue their interests in education research, thereby renewing the ed research community.

Small Research Grants Program formally established.

The Small Grants program was established to provide modest funds for researchers to explore new areas of inquiry, pursue added dimensions of larger investigations, or complete research already underway. Since its establishment this program has grown to become a vital part of Spencer's research grant programs.

Establishment of the Dissertation Fellowship Program

On behalf of Spencer, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation administered a dissertation-level fellowship award program to provide graduate students with financial support in order to complete their dissertations. The program was administered by Woodrow Wilson Foundation until 1992 at which time the administration of the program was brought in-house.

The Program is intended to assist twenty-five to thirty young scholars per year in the completion of the doctoral dissertation, helping to ensure the continued growth of able researchers in the field.

Spencer Scholars Program was created.

An invitational award created to support the work of a small number of eminent educational researchers who were judged to be at the "peak of their career." This program gave proven scholars time to reflect, integrate, break new ground, and contribute to the learnings of significant research careers.

David Tatel elected as Chair in January 1990 and served until January 1997.

Patricia Albjerg Graham was elected as the Foundation's 3rd President and served until June 2000.

Patricia Albjerg Graham was elected a director in 1983 and served as President of the Foundation from 1991-2000. She is a leading historian of American education. She began her teaching career in Deep Creek, Virginia, and later taught in Norfolk, Virginia, and New York City. She has also served as a high-school guidance counselor. From 1965 to 1974, while director of Barnard College's Education Program, she worked closely with teachers and administrators in New York City to assist beginning teachers in their schools. She has been a lecturer and assistant professor at Indiana University, a visiting professor at Northern Michigan University, and a professor of history and education at Teachers College, Columbia University. In 1972-73 she was awarded a John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship. She has served as dean of the Radcliffe Institute and as vice president of Radcliffe College. She joined the HGSE faculty in 1974 and served as dean from 1982 to 1991. She was also appointed by the President of the United States as the director of the National Institute of Education, then the federal government's educational research agency, where she served from 1977 to 1979.

History Lecture to Talk About George E. Spencer

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Spencer, IA (KICD) — The next historical lecture in Spencer asks the question: “Who is George E. Spencer?”

Retired history teacher Steve Bomgaars says he was a New York lawyer who moved to Iowa, got elected to the state legislature, and became a land speculator.

And that property is what was incorporated into a city 150 years ago.

From Iowa, George E. Spencer became a Union General in the Civil War went to Colorado during the gold rush and founded the city of Breckenridge and wound up in Alabama as a U.S. Senator.

Bomgaars presents the full lecture at 5:30 Tuesday night at Spencer City Hall.

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