Battle of the Glanis River, 83 BC

Battle of the Glanis River, 83 BC


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Battle of the Glanis River, 82 BC

The battle of the Glanis River (82 BC) saw Sulla defeat a force of Celtiberian cavalry that had been sent to help the Consuls in their attempt to resist his invasion of Italy (Sulla's Second Civil War).

At the start of the fighting in 82 BC the Consuls for the year, Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and the younger Marius, had split their forces. Marius went south to face Sulla, while Carbo moved north to face Metellus Pius and Pompey. After an initial defeat on the Aesis River, Carbo besieged Metellus at an unknown location, but Marius didn't do so well. He suffered a heavy defeat at Sacriportus, and had to take refuge in Praeneste, which was then besieged by Sulla's forces. Carbo was forced to return south, but he never reached Rome. From Praeneste, Marius sent instructions to Rome for a massacre of his opponents. Soon after this, Sulla was able to occupy the city without a fight. Carbo must have been moving south while this was going on, as by the time Sulla had finished in Rome, Carbo had reached Clusium (Chiusi), just over eighty miles to the north of Rome.

The battle of the Glanis River was the first of three encounters presented as having happened in a fairly short period in Appian. The Glacis (or Clanis) rose to the west of Arretium, flowed south past Clusium and into the Tiber just to the south of Volsinii. Sulla's logical route from Rome would have taken him up the Via Cassia, which led from Rome to Volsinii and then to Clusium.

The Consuls had clearly retained some support outside Italy. The praetors in Spain (where the Marians later made their last stand under Quintus Sertorius), sent a force of Celtiberian cavalry to join Carbo's army. This force appears to have arrived after Carbo's retreat from the north of Italy and were now perhaps acting as a cavalry screen on the Glanis, somewhere to the south of Clusium.

The Celtiberian cavalry ended up getting into a cavalry fight with Sulla's men on the banks of the River Glanis. About fifty of them were killed in the battle. Another 270 then deserted to Sulla, one of a series of desertions that blighted the Marian war effort. Carbo's response was to massacre the rest of the Celtiberians. Appian doesn't say how many men were involved in this massacre, and gives two possible motives - anger because of the previous desertion, or fear that the remaining troops would copy their countrymen.

The second battle took place at Saturnia, a spa town well to the west of the Glanis, on the Via Clodia. Appian has this happening at the same time as the massacre of the Celtiberians, and it would seem unlikely that Sulla himself would have moved west across difficult country from the Glanis to Saturnia and then back again to fight in the third battle of the sequence, at Clusium, so this second battle probably involved a detached part of Sulla's army that had been sent up the Via Clodia instead of the Via Cassia.

The final battle took place at Clusium, on the Glanis. This was a day long battle, but ended inconclusively and Sulla had to withdraw (Clusium appears to have remained as a Marian base until almost the end of the war). However Carbo suffered a setback at Spoletium (Spoleto, on an eastern branch of the Via Flaminia), 40 mile to the east/ south-east of Clusium. This saw Pompey, who had clearly followed Carbo south, defeat Carinas, one of Carbo's generals.


Timeline: 1st Century BCE (100 to 1)

91 Emperor Wu of China is seventy-five and violence erupts over who will succeed him.

86 Emperor Wu is succeeded by a compromise choice: an eight-year-old who is put under the regency of a former general, Huo Guang.

83 For the Romans, compromise and toleration have not been working politically. General Marcus Sulla returns from wars in the East, and in a civil war and bloodbath he takes power in Rome. Sulla creates a new constitution that gives rule to the Senate and that he believes will restore the republic, order and dignity to Rome.

79 Sulla retires. He believes that peace had been established at home and abroad and that Rome's government is functioning as it had in its glorious past. He grows cabbages and studies Epicureanism.

77 Around this year, the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Esther, is translated into Greek.

74 Emperor Zhao dies at the age of twenty and is succeeded by another child, Emperor Xuan.

73 A Roman slave, Spartacus, escapes with seventy-seven other prisoners and seizes control of nearby Mount Vesuvius. News of the revolt encourages other slaves, and they join Spartacus on Mount Vesuvius &ndash an army of from fifty to a hundred thousand.

71 Spartacus and other slaves are crucified on the major road in and out of Rome: the Appian way. The latest slave uprising has lowered the demand for slaves. Landowners start replacing gangs of slaves with a less frightening alternative: free people farming as tenants.

68 Regent Huo Guang dies peaceably, but palace rivalry leads to charges of treason against Huo Guang's wife, son and many of Huo Guang's relatives and family associates, and they are executed. With Huo Guang gone, Emperor Xuan is able to exercise more control.

67 The Maccabees family has been renamed the Hasmonaeans. Two Hasmonaean brothers, John Hyrcanus II and Judas Aristobulus, are competing for power, and a civil war erupts.

63 The Roman general, Gneaus Pompey, is in Syria with a Roman army in response to disorder there. Syria is annexed to the Roman Empire. The Hasmonaeans still have an alliance with Rome, and the two warring Hasmonaean brothers seek arbitration from Rome. Pompey and his army march into Judah. Fighting erupts between Jews and the Roman army. The Romans take possession of Judah &ndash territory they call Judea.

58 Julius Caesar goes to Gaul as military-governor.

53 The Parthians annihilate an army of 40,000 Romans.

52 (Oct 3) Leader of the Gauls, Vercingetorix, surrenders to Julius Caesar, ending the battle of Alesia.

50 Around this year the Parthians extend their empire to the Indus Valley. A people called Kushans have been pushing into Bactria against the Scythians there, and the Scythians are pushing into India (to be known in India as Sakas).

49 Rome's senate has worried over Caesar's popularity and has ordered him home from Gaul. On January 10 Caesar crosses the Rubicon River with his army, a forbidden move which means civil war.

48 China has a new emperor, Emperor Yuan, age twenty-seven. He is a timid intellectual who is to spend much time with his concubines. Rather than govern, he will leave power in the hands of his eunuch secretaries and members of his mother's family.

48 (Aug 9) Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.

48 (Sep 28) Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt.

47 Caesar returns to Rome as victor. Many Romans think their troubles are over, that at last a champion of the people has secured power and that the gods have granted Caesar good fortune. Caesar is conciliatory with former enemies.

45 (Jan 1) Julius Caesar's reform calendar, the Julian calendar, goes into effect: twelve months (January to December in English), 365 days per year and one day added in February every four years.

44 Caesar is murdered by Stoic idealists in order to preserve the Roman republic. Reconciliation has not worked.

32 Emperor Cheng has succeeded his father. He also has little enthusiasm for governing and is most concerned with personal pleasures.

30 Civil war has followed Caesar's assassination, and it reduces to Caesar's nephew, Octavian, against Antony and Cleopatra. Antony dies on August 1, at the age of 53. Cleopatra dies eight days later at 39.

29 Octavian returns to Rome a hero. He is to be worshipped as the bringer of peace.

27 Octavian renounces his consulship and declares that he is surrendering all powers, including control of the army. The Senate returns his powers and gives him a title that has the ring of his being divinely chosen, Augustus Caesar, and the Senate makes it law that he be included in the prayers of Rome's priests. In appearance, the Roman Republic had been restored, but ultimate power is still held by Octavian.

23 South of Egypt, the Romans drive back, as far as Napata, the rival imperialist army of Meroe.

19 Augustus Caesar is associating morality with the well-being of the state and the pleasing of the gods. To stay on the good side of the gods he has begun a crusade to revive temperance and morality. He tries setting an example by dressing without extravagance and by living in a modest house. He asks Virgil to write the Aeneid, a story about the gods and the founding of the Roman race.

15 Livy, the Roman historian, is in his forties. He has been writing his history of Rome since the year 29. He investigates the story of the founding of Rome, which is popular among the Romans. It is the story of Romulus and Remus, ending with Romulus vanishing into a thunderstorm, becoming a god and then reappearing, descending from the sky and declaring that it is the will of heaven that Rome be the capital of the world.

6 Emperor Cheng is succeeded by Emperor Ngai, who lives in the company of homosexual boys, one of whom he appoints commander-in-chief of his armies. With the decline in quality of monarchs following the reign of Emperor Wu, some Confucian scholars declare that the Han dynasty has lost its Mandate from Heaven, and this is widely believed.

1 Augustus Caesar has laws passed that he hopes will reduce inter-breeding between Romans and non-Romans. He is encouraging marriage. Romans believe in the family, and they agree that adultery should be illegal. They believe that the virtue of their women helped win favor for their city from their gods. And they continue to be disgusted by criminality.


Seleucid empire

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Seleucid empire, (312–64 bce ), an ancient empire that at its greatest extent stretched from Thrace in Europe to the border of India. It was carved out of the remains of Alexander the Great’s Macedonian empire by its founder, Seleucus I Nicator. (See also Hellenistic Age.)

Seleucus, one of Alexander’s leading generals, became satrap (governor) of Babylonia in 321, two years after the death of Alexander. In the prolonged power struggle between the former generals of Alexander for control of the disintegrating empire, Seleucus sided with Ptolemy I of Egypt against Antigonus I, Alexander’s successor on the Macedonian throne, who had forced Seleucus out of Babylonia. In 312 Seleucus defeated Demetrius at Gaza using troops supplied by Ptolemy, and with a smaller force he seized Babylonia that same year, thereby founding the Seleucid kingdom, or empire. By 305, having consolidated his power over the kingdom, he began gradually to extend his domain eastward to the Indus River and westward to Syria and Anatolia, where he decisively defeated Antigonus at Ipsus in 301. In 281 he annexed the Thracian Chersonesus. That same year, he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, the disgruntled son of Ptolemy I.

Seleucus was succeeded by his eldest son, Antiochus I Soter, who reigned until 261 and was followed by Antiochus II (reigned 261–246), Seleucus II (246–225), Seleucus III (225–223), and Antiochus III the Great (223–187), whose reign was marked by sweeping administrative reforms in which many of the features of the ancient Persian imperial administration, adopted initially by Alexander, were modernized to eliminate a dual power structure strained by rivalry between military and political figures. The empire was administered by provincial stratēgoi, who combined military and civil power. Administrative centres were located at Sardis in the west and at Seleucia on the Tigris in the east. By controlling Anatolia and its Greek cities, the Seleucids exerted enormous political, economic, and cultural power throughout the Middle East. Their control over the strategic Taurus Mountain passes between Anatolia and Syria, as well as the Hellespont between Thrace and Anatolia, allowed them to dominate commerce and trade in the region. Seleucid settlements in Syria, primarily Antioch, were regional centres by which the Seleucid empire projected its military, economic, and cultural influence.

The Seleucid empire was a major centre of Hellenistic culture, which maintained the preeminence of Greek customs and manners over the indigenous cultures of the Middle East. A Greek-speaking Macedonian aristocratic class dominated the Seleucid state throughout its history, although this dominance was most strongly felt in the urban areas. Resistance to Greek cultural hegemony peaked during the reign of Antiochus IV (175–163), whose promotion of Greek culture culminated in his raising a statue to Zeus in the Temple at Jerusalem. He had previously ordered the Jews to build shrines to idols and to sacrifice pigs and other unclean animals and had forbidden circumcision—essentially prohibiting, on pain of death, the practice of the Jewish law. This persecution of the Jews and desecration of the Temple sparked the Maccabean uprising beginning in 165. A quarter-century of Maccabean resistance ended with the final wresting of control over Judea from the Seleucids and the creation of an independent Judea in Palestine.

The Seleucid empire began losing control over large territories in the 3rd century bce . An inexorable decline followed the first defeat of the Seleucids by the Romans in 190. By that time the Aegean Greek cities had thrown off the Seleucid yoke, Cappadocia and Attalid Pergamum had achieved independence, and other territories had been lost to the Celts and to Pontus and Bythnia. By the middle of the 3rd century, Parthia, Bactria, and Sogdiana had gained their independence the conquest of Coele Syria (Lebanon) and Palestine by Antiochus III (200) and a brief occupation of Armenia made up to some extent for the loss of much of Anatolia to the Romans. The decline accelerated after the death of Antiochus IV (164) with the loss of Commagene in Syria and of Judea in Palestine. By 141 all lands east of the Euphrates were gone, and attempts by Demetrius II (141) and Antiochus VII (130) could not halt the rapid disintegration of the empire. When it was finally conquered by the Romans in 64 bce , the formerly mighty Seleucid empire was confined to the provinces of Syria and eastern Cilicia, and even those were under tenuous control.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.


The Battle of Philippi 42 BCE

The Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE was an all-Roman affair fought between the young Octavian, chosen heir of Julius Caesar, and the mercurial Mark Antony, widely regarded as the greatest living Roman general on the one side against Brutus and Cassius, the assassins of Caesar and champions of the Republican cause on the other. The battle, on an inland plain in eastern Macedonia near the city of Philippi, would involve the largest Roman armies to ever take the field and, as 36 legions clashed, the bloody outcome would decide the future of the Roman Empire and finally bring to an end the 500-year old Roman Republic.

Prologue

In 44 BCE Mark Antony and Gaius Octavian, Caesar's most accomplished general and his chosen heir respectively, formed an uneasy alliance to take revenge on the dictator's assassins and restore order to the Republic. After an initial reconciliation with the conspirators Antony tried to marginalise Brutus and Cassius by appointing them supervisors of Rome's grain supply from Asia and Sicily. The positions were refused and both men left Rome for the east. Octavian, meanwhile, began a successful campaign to increase his own popularity with the people by sponsoring a series of public games. Antony, though, came under attack from Cicero who wanted a fully independent Senate and who cast his support for Octavian. However, even if Antony was coming off second-best in the political arena, he still had control of the army, and he brought four of his Macedonian legions to Italy to drive home the strength of his position.

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Events took a twist when Antony went to meet his legions at Brundisium in October 44 BCE. Angry at Antony's lack of decisive action against Caesar's killers, the troops had switched loyalties to Octavian who had offered them greater financial rewards. The old distinction between these two ambitious men that one had political power and the other military was now no longer the case. Further, other legions began to throw their allegiance at Octavian's feet. Antony responded by fixing that the Senate redistributed important provinces to his own loyal supporters. The consequence of this was the conciliation with Caesar's assassins was reversed. Decimus Brutus, another of the conspirators who had killed Caesar, ignored the re-division and, raising two legions, held station at Mutina (Modena). Antony, still with three legions at his disposal, lay siege to the fortified city. Meanwhile, and now supported by the Senate, Octavian took command of four legions and declared Antony guilty of tumultus, or civil disorder, one step short of a declaration of war against his great rival for control of the Roman Empire.

The battles around Mutina in April 43 BCE were as confused as the various conflicting accounts by ancient historians but the end result was Antony was first victorious but then partially defeated, the Republicans won but lost both consuls, and Octavian was upset not to be given a triumph by the Senate and was alienated by their decision to give Sextus Pompey command of the navy. While Octavian manipulated politics in Rome, Antony strengthened his own position and now controlled Gaul and Spain. Octavian also made his decisive move in August 43 BCE and marched his eight legions to Rome where the three Republican legions promptly switched sides and Octavian became consul at the unprecedented young age of 20. His position was further strengthened when he was joined by six more ex-Republican legions. Octavian, now with 17 legions at his disposal, turned his full attention to Antony, who had 20 legions and 10,000 cavalry under his command. Even now though, diplomacy prevailed and the three leading Romans - Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus - met in November 43 BCE to discuss terms and form the Second Triumvirate where each member was given carte blanche power for five years in their respective zones of the empire. The legions were re-shuffled so that Lepidus had three legions in Rome and Octavian and Antony each had 20. Vicious revenge was then taken on Republican supporters in Rome and such notable figures as Cicero were executed.

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Meanwhile, Brutus collected his army in upper Macedonia whilst Cassius amassed 12 legions in Judea. In 43 BCE the two joined forces at Smyrna. Then, after successful campaigns against Rhodes and Xanthus, the two took position at Philippi on the Hellespont in September 42 BCE. The third threat to Octavian and Antony was Sextus Pompey whose large naval fleet had helped him take control of Sicily in December 43 BCE. Octavian, unable to overwhelm Sextus, instead heeded Antony's request to fight together against the larger threat of Brutus and Cassius. From Brundisium the two armies crossed the Adriatic. For the first time, the opposing legions were in close proximity and ready for battle.

Commanders

Marcus Junius Brutus, although previously successful in smaller conflicts in Thrace and Lycia, has been judged by history as a little too soft and lacking in authority when it came to the serious generalship of commanding large armies in set-piece battles and, consequently, he has been described as more of a statesman than a military commander by many historians. The other Republican leader Gaius Cassius Longinus, on the other hand, had gained a reputation as an astute general and tough disciplinarian - defeating the Parthians in 51 BCE and half of Julius Caesar's fleet during the Civil War, when he sided with Pompey. This pair, then, were an odd but formidable commanding team but it was their bad luck that they now happened to face two of Rome's greatest ever leaders.

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Marcus Antonius, better known as Mark Antony, had already enjoyed a glittering military career by the time of Philippi with a long series of successes as Caesar's right-hand man and Master of the Horse. Antony was notoriously bad at leadership in peace time and all too easily neglected politics for wild parties but in the chaos and horror of battle he was second-to-none. His ally, albeit one of pure convenience to defeat a common enemy, was Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. Technically, Octavian, chosen heir of the now deified Julius Caesar, was the son of a god but this disguised his relatively modest background. Octavian would go on to become the first, and arguably greatest ever, Roman emperor but at Philippi he was still a young and inexperienced commander, even worse, he was beset with health problems during the battle and so it was Antony who would, as so many times before, steal the military lime-light. Daring and incautious but so often lucky, Antony would once more excel in the role he was seemingly born for.

Armies & Weapons

The two Roman armies which clashed at Philippi were composed of the now well-established military units, the legions. A legion was composed of 4,800 men broken down into 10 cohorts and 60 centuries. Each legion was commanded by a legate (legati) who was aided by military tribunes (tribunimilitum). Each century was led from the front by a centurion and a sergeant (tesserarius) whilst an optio (deputy) marshalled the rear. An ordinary legionary was armed with a gladius short sword (double-edged and around 60 cm long), a pilum spear or javelin, a pugio dagger, and he had a scutum shield (around a metre tall, made of wood and edged with iron), mail armour, and helmet for protection. Supplementing each legion were a force of 300 cavalry, and slingers, archers and other light-armed auxiliaries.

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Opening Positions

The battle would involve the largest number of troops in Roman warfare up to that point. 19 legions of 110,000 men on the Triumvirate side faced 17 Republican legions of 90,000 men. The Triumvirs had a force of 13,000 cavalry and one extra legion stationed at nearby Amphipolis whilst the Republicans had two legions guarding the fleet and a cavalry force of 17,000 on the plain. The Republican army was then, not only smaller but it also consisted of a much more varied mix of troops taken from across the empire. On top of that, many of the veterans and all-important centurions had fought many times for Julius Caesar, and so to now face his heir and best general must have severely tested the troops' resolve and loyalty.

In the field Cassius took advantage of two mounds located above the plain of Philippi to make two fortified camps for his nine legions. Brutus and his eight legions camped at the foot of the mountains and a palisaded corridor was built to connect the two Republican armies. Both camps received additional protection from the Gangites River. The two camps were a significant 2.7 km apart though, which meant the two armies could not easily offer mutual support. Antony, therefore, concentrated on Cassius' camp and, with typical bravado, established his army of ten legions in a well-fortified camp a mere 1.5 km from the enemy. Ten days later, Octavian's army of nine legions arrived. Nevertheless, the Republicans had all the advantages of a better supply line and an elevated position so that time was on their side. The Triumvirs would have to take the initiative.

First Battle of Philippi

Several early attempts by Antony and Octavian to draw the enemy down to the plain failed completely. As a consequence, Antony, while still making a show of troop manoeuvres on the plain, attempted to cross the reed marshes undetected by building a causeway and, when behind the Republican camps, try to cut their supply lines. Cassius soon got wind of the strategy and responded by trying to cut off Antony's advance forces by himself building a transverse wall from his camp to the marshes. Seeing his plan had been discovered, on October 3rd, Antony led a direct assault on Cassius' wall overwhelming the stunned left flank of the enemy and destroying their fortifications. Then, while the bulk of Cassius' army was engaged on the plain, Antony went straight for Cassius's largely undefended camp. As things swung against Cassius' legions on the plain and when they saw their camp routed a chaotic retreat followed.

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Meanwhile Brutus was doing well against Octavian's legions who, caught by a surprise charge from Brutus' over-eager advance troops which had necessitated the whole Republican army mobilising in support, were routed in a chaotic battle during which Octavian's camp was captured. Fortunately, Octavian - ill again and missing the battle - had taken refuge in the marshes and avoided certain capture. Brutus, on discovering the loss of Cassius' camp, sent reinforcements but Cassius, holding out with a small force on the acropolis of Philippi, interpreted them as more of Antony's forces and so committed suicide - as it happened, on his birthday - rather than be captured. While all this was happening Antony and Octavian's reserve troops, arriving by sea, were destroyed crossing the Adriatic by the Republican fleet. Thus, the first battle of Philippi ended, more or less, in a 1:1 draw, with 9,000 losses on the Republican side and more than double that figure from Octavian's army.

Second Battle of Philippi

Following the first battle both sides returned to their original camps to re-group. Brutus, taking over Cassius' camp, sought to stick to his original plan of holding station until the enemy was forced to withdraw through lack of provisions. Brutus did harass the enemy via night attacks on their position and even diverting a river to wash away part of their camp. Lacking supplies and having lost their back-up in the Adriatic, Antony and Octavian had to make their move before winter really set in and forced them to leave the field. Initially, Brutus stoically resisted the repeated taunting by the enemy to come out and face them but eventually, at least according to the ancient Roman historians, ill-discipline got the upper hand and Brutus' army took their own initiative and descended to the plain.

Antony had, meanwhile, also made some daring and decisive moves. First, he took full advantage of a small mound south of Brutus' camp which the Republican leader had left unguarded (and this despite the fact that Cassius had previously stationed a garrison on it). Building a palisade of whicker, four legions were now dangerously close to Brutus' position. At the same time Antony moved ten legions into the central marsh area and two more a little further east. Brutus responded by building a fortified camp facing each of these two blocks of enemy troops but if the battle lines were extended any further then Brutus would be isolated from his supplies and backed up against the mountains -an impossible position to defend. The Republican army, then, had little choice but to engage the enemy with a full-scale assault. The time for dilly-dallying was over.

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The use of artillery weapons in the confines of such a tightly-packed battlefield was considered impractical and the opposing armies immediately clashed in fearsome hand-to-hand fighting. Initially, the Republicans did well against the enemy's left wing but Brutus, with fewer troops at his disposal, had stretched his lines thin to ward of an out-flanking manoeuvre. The consequence was Antony relentlessly pushed forward and smashed the enemy centre and, moving left, attacked the rear of Brutus' lines. The order of the Republican troops now completely broke down and chaos ensued. Meanwhile, Octavian had attacked the Republican camp while Antony used his cavalry to chase down Brutus and prevent his escape. The Republican leader had found refuge in the nearby mountains but when his four remaining legions moved to plea for clemency from Antony, Brutus took his own life. In total 14,000 soldiers surrendered and while some others managed to flee by ship to Thasos, the Republican cause was at an end and Julius Caesar's murder had been avenged. In the words of Ovid, "all the daring criminals who in defiance of the gods, defiled the high priest's head [Caesar], have fallen in merited death. Philippi is witness, and those whose scattered bones whiten its earth".

Aftermath

Whilst Antony was hailed as imperator by the victors and losers alike, Octavian, who had dealt more harshly with the defeated, was not so highly esteemed. As Plutarch stated in no uncertain terms, "[Octavian] did nothing worth relating, and all the success and victory were Antony's". The legions were again re-distributed with Antony taking eight to campaign against Parthia whilst Octavian, with three, returned to Italy. The battle, with its 40,000 fatalities and subsequent retaliations against Republican sympathizers, robbed Rome of some of its finest citizens and soldiers, and still the question of just who would rule Rome was not settled. For, despite the obvious military skills of Antony, in the end, it would be Octavian's political skills and genius at inspiring loyalty from other, more talented commanders such as Marcus Agrippa, that ensured Antony was prevented from becoming Caesar. Following several more years of struggle and intrigue, it was Octavian who would be the real winner at Philippi and ultimately, following the defeat of Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE, he would rule the Roman Empire as the first of a long line of Roman emperors.


Lusitanian Wars : 155-139 B.C.

The Lusitani were a Celtic tribe living in the far west of Hispania, in the modern region of Portugal. The Lucitanian War broke out in 155 BC when, under a leader named Punicus, the Lucitanians revolted against Roman rule, ravaged Roman towns and killed 6,000 Romans and their allies. The Mummius was sent with an army to put down the rebellion, but suffered a serious defeat, loosing 9,000 of his army. The rebellion spread to the Vettones to the east, and also to the south where the Roman city of Cunei was conquered. Mummius, having recovered from his previous defeat, followed the victorious Lusitanian armies and slew them in camp, and raised the siege of Ocile. He slew all of the retreating Lusitanians and returned to Rome in triumph. Some of the rebelling cities were now prepared to make terms, but others were not. A peace negotiated with the Roman commander Atilius was put aside when some of the tribes rebelled again, and besieged more Roman towns. In 151 Servius Galba and Lucullus (who had attacked the Celt-Iberians in violation of a previous peace agreement), were sent to put down the Lusitanians, and the did so ruthlessly. When ambassadors came asking peace from the Romans, he pretended to make a favorable truce, but then slaughtered the entire lot of them. One of those who escaped however, was Virianthus, who was later to become the leader of the Lusitanians.

Four years later another rebellion broke out, involving about 10,000 Lusitanians. A new Roman army arrived and cornered the rebels. While they considered their options Virianthus came to them, and offered to show them a means of escape. They broke off negotiations with Rome, and followed Virianthus, who not only helped them escape, but set an ambush for the Romans, killing thousands end even taking the commander prisoner. The next army sent against Virianthus, met a similar fate, it being his habit to kill virtually all of the men captured in ambush.

Virianthus continued these depredations until a new consul army under Aemilianus was sent against him, in 145 BC After carefully drilling his army for over a year, Aemilianus met Virianthus in battle, and defeated him. Nothing daunted, Virianthus responded by prompting several of the other Celt-Iberian tribes, including the Avevaci and Belli, to rebel from Rome. This led to the third Celt-Iberian War, described previously, and caused much grief and great difficulties for the Romans. Rome sent another large army against Virianthus, and damaged his cause by attacking towns that had allied with him, but were unable to decisively beat him. For two years they tracked and harassed, but could not defeat him. Finally, as the Romans besieged a Lusitanian town, Virianthus surprised them and put them to flight, driving them into cliffs from which they could not escape. Instead of slaughtering the Romans, however, he sued for peace on favorable terms and was granted it. The peace, however, was not long lasting, since many in Rome opposed such a "disgraceful" treaty, and soon re-opened the war. The weary war dragged on. Virianthus army was reduced to such a size that they operated more as bandits than as an army. He was so outnumbered that he refused to meet the Romans in open battle but continued to harass the army and its allies. The war was not concluded until three ambassadors, sent from Virianthus' camp were bribed to assassinate him. Soon after the Romans concluded peace with the rest of his army.


Commander Short Biography
Roman General who met Virianthus in battle, and defeated him.
Roman General who dealt treacherously with the Lusitania tribes.
Lusitanian chief who resisted Rome during conquest of Hispania. Won many battles and incited rebellions.


Battle of the Glanis River, 83 BC - History

Map of the Ammonites Territory

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Map of the Territory of the Ancient Ammonites

The Ammonites (sons of Ammon) according to the Bible originated because of an incestuous relationship between Lot (Abraham's nephew) and his younger daughter (Gen 19:38). Archaeology reveals that the Ammonites dwelt east of the Jordan River and settled there at the beginning of the 13th century B.C.

Ezra 9:1 - Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, doing according to their abominations, even of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.

The Ammonites in the Smith's Bible Dictionary

Ammon
(sons of renown, mountaineers), Am'monites, Children of Ammon, A people descended from Ben-ammi, the son of Lot by his younger daughter. Ge 19:38 comp Psal 83:7,8
The Ammonites are frequently mentioned with the Moabites (descendants of Ben-ammi's half-brother), and sometimes under the same name. Comp. Jud 10:6 2Ch 20:1 Zep 2:8 etc. The precise position of the territory of the Ammonites is not ascertainable. In the earliest mention of them, De 2:20 they are said to have dwelt in their place, Jabbok being their border. Nu 21:24 De 2:37 3:16 (i.e. Land or country is, however, but rarely ascribed to them. Their capital city was Rabbath, called also Rabbath Ammon on the Jabbok. We find everywhere traces of the fierce habits of maranders in their incursions.) 1Sa 11:2 Am 1:13 and a very high degree of crafty cruelty to their toes. Jer 41:6,7 Jud 17:11,12 Moab was the settled and civilized half of the nation of Lot, and Ammon formed its predatory and Bedouin section. On the west of Jordan they never obtained a footing. The hatred in which the Ammonites were held by Israel is stated to have arisen partly from their denial of assistance, De 23:4 to the Israelites on their approach to Canaan. But whatever its origin the animosity continued in force to the latest date. The tribe was governed by a king, Jud 11:12 etc. 1Sa 12:12 2Sa 10:1 Jer 40:14 and by "princes." 2Sa 10:3 1Ch 19:3 The divinity of the tribe was Molech [MOLECH], and they were gross idolaters. Full Article

The Ammonites in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

AMMON AMMONITES
am'-on, am'-on-its (`ammon `ammonim): The Hebrew tradition makes this tribe descendants of Lot and hence related to the Israelites (Gen 19:38). This is reflected in the name usually employed in Old Testament to designate them, Ben `Ammi, Bene `Ammon, "son of my people," "children of my people," i.e. relatives. Hence we find that the Israelites are commanded to avoid conflict with them on their march to the Promised Land (Dt 2:19). Their dwelling-place was on the east of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, between the Arnon and the Jabbok, but, before the advance of the Hebrews, they had been dispossessed of a portion of their land by the Amorites, who founded, along the east side of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, the kingdom of Sihon (Nu 21:21-31). We know from the records of Egypt, especially Tell el-Amarna Letters, the approximate date of the Amorite invasion (14th and 13th centuries, BC). They were pressed on the north by the Hittites who forced them upon the tribes of the south, and some of them settled east of the Jordan. Thus, Israel helped Ammonites by destroying their old enemies, and this makes their conduct at a later period the more reprehensible. In the days of Jephthah they oppressed the Israelites east of the Jordan, claiming that the latter had deprived them of their territory when they came from Egypt, whereas it was the possessions of the Amorites they took (Jdg 11:1-28). They were defeated, but their hostility did not cease, and their conduct toward the Israelites was particularly shameful, as in the days of Saul (1 Sam 11) and of David (2 Sam 10). This may account for the cruel treatment meted out to them in the war that followed (2 Sam 12:26-31). They seem to have been completely subdued by David and their capital was taken, and we find a better spirit manifested afterward, for Nahash of Rabbah showed kindness to him when a fugitive (2 Sam 17:27-29). Their country came into the possession of Jeroboam, on the division of the kingdom, and when the Syrians of Damascus deprived the kingdom of Israel of their possessions east of the Jordan, the Ammonites became subjects of Benhadad, and we find a contingent of 1,000 of them serving as allies of that king in the great battle of the Syrians with the Assyrians at Qarqar (854 BC) in the reign of Shalmaneser II. They may have regained their old territory when Tiglath-pileser carried off the Israelites East of the Jordan into captivity (2 Ki 15:29 1 Ch 5:26). Their hostility to both kingdoms, Judah and Israel, was often manifested. In the days of Jehoshaphat they joined with the Moabites in an attack upon him, but met with disaster (2 Ch 20). They paid tribute to Jotham (2 Ch 27:5). After submitting to Tiglath-pileser they were generally tributary to Assyria, but we have mention of their joining In the general uprising that took place under Sennacherib but they submitted and we find them tributary in the reign of Esarhaddon. Their hostility to Judah is shown in their joining the Chaldeans to destroy it (2 Ki 24:2). Their cruelty is denounced by the prophet Amos (1:13), and their destruction by Jer (49:1-6), Ezek (21:28-32), Zeph (2:8,9). Their murder of Gedaliah (2 Ki 25:22-26 Jer 40:14) was a dastardly act. Tobiah the Ammonites united with Sanballat to oppose Neh (Neh 4), and their opposition to the Jews did not cease with the establishment of the latter in Judea.
They joined the Syrians in their wars with the Maccabees and were defeated by Judas (1 Mac 5:6).
Their religion was a degrading and cruel superstition. Their chief god was Molech, or Moloch, to whom they offered human sacrifices (1 Ki 11:7) against which Israel was especially warned (Lev 20:2-5). This worship was common to other tribes for we find it mentioned among the Phoenicians. Full Article

The Bible Mentions the "Ammonites" in many places:

Jeremiah 41:10 - Then Ishmael carried away captive all the residue of the people that [were] in Mizpah, [even] the king's daughters, and all the people that remained in Mizpah, whom Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had committed to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah carried them away captive, and departed to go over to the Ammonites.

2 Chronicles 27:5 - He fought also with the king of the Ammonites, and prevailed against them. And the children of Ammon gave him the same year an hundred talents of silver, and ten thousand measures of wheat, and ten thousand of barley. So much did the children of Ammon pay unto him, both the second year, and the third.

Jeremiah 27:3 - And send them to the king of Edom, and to the king of Moab, and to the king of the Ammonites, and to the king of Tyrus, and to the king of Zidon, by the hand of the messengers which come to Jerusalem unto Zedekiah king of Judah

Jeremiah 49:2 - Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will cause an alarm of war to be heard in Rabbah of the Ammonites and it shall be a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned with fire: then shall Israel be heir unto them that were his heirs, saith the LORD.

Ezekiel 21:28 - And thou, son of man, prophesy and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD concerning the Ammonites, and concerning their reproach even say thou, The sword, the sword [is] drawn: for the slaughter [it is] furbished, to consume because of the glittering:

Ezra 9:1 - Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, [even] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.

Ezekiel 25:3 - And say unto the Ammonites, Hear the word of the Lord GOD Thus saith the Lord GOD Because thou saidst, Aha, against my sanctuary, when it was profaned and against the land of Israel, when it was desolate and against the house of Judah, when they went into captivity

Jeremiah 49:1 - Concerning the Ammonites, thus saith the LORD Hath Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why [then] doth their king inherit Gad, and his people dwell in his cities?

1 Kings 11:1 - But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, [and] Hittites

2 Chronicles 20:1 - It came to pass after this also, [that] the children of Moab, and the children of Ammon, and with them [other] beside the Ammonites, came against Jehoshaphat to battle.

Deuteronomy 2:20 - (That also was accounted a land of giants: giants dwelt therein in old time and the Ammonites call them Zamzummims

1 Samuel 11:11 - And it was [so] on the morrow, that Saul put the people in three companies and they came into the midst of the host in the morning watch, and slew the Ammonites until the heat of the day: and it came to pass, that they which remained were scattered, so that two of them were not left together.

Jeremiah 40:11 - Likewise when all the Jews that [were] in Moab, and among the Ammonites, and in Edom, and that [were] in all the countries, heard that the king of Babylon had left a remnant of Judah, and that he had set over them Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan

Nehemiah 4:7 - But it came to pass, [that] when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, [and] that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth,

Jeremiah 40:14 - And said unto him, Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee? But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not.

2 Chronicles 26:8 - And the Ammonites gave gifts to Uzziah: and his name spread abroad [even] to the entering in of Egypt for he strengthened [himself] exceedingly.

Ezekiel 25:5 - And I will make Rabbah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couchingplace for flocks: and ye shall know that I [am] the LORD.

1 Kings 11:5 - For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

Ezekiel 21:20 - Appoint a way, that the sword may come to Rabbath of the Ammonites, and to Judah in Jerusalem the defenced.

Jeremiah 41:15 - But Ishmael the son of Nethaniah escaped from Johanan with eight men, and went to the Ammonites.

Ezekiel 25:2 - Son of man, set thy face against the Ammonites, and prophesy against them


More About Ancient Ammonites

AMMON AMMONITES
am'-on, am'-on-its (`ammon `ammonim): The Hebrew tradition makes this tribe descendants of Lot and hence related to the Israelites (Gen 19:38). This is reflected in the name usually employed in Old Testament to designate them, Ben `Ammi, Bene `Ammon, "son of my people," "children of my people," i.e. relatives. Hence we find that the Israelites are commanded to avoid conflict with them on their march to the Promised Land (Dt 2:19). Their dwelling-place was on the east of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, between the Arnon and the Jabbok, but, before the advance of the Hebrews, they had been dispossessed of a portion of their land by the Amorites, who founded, along the east side of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, the kingdom of Sihon (Nu 21:21-31). We know from the records of Egypt, especially Tell el-Amarna Letters, the approximate date of the Amorite invasion (14th and 13th centuries, BC). They were pressed on the north by the Hittites who forced them upon the tribes of the south, and some of them settled east of the Jordan. Thus, Israel helped Ammonites by destroying their old enemies, and this makes their conduct at a later period the more reprehensible. In the days of Jephthah they oppressed the Israelites east of the Jordan, claiming that the latter had deprived them of their territory when they came from Egypt, whereas it was the possessions of the Amorites they took (Jdg 11:1-28). They were defeated, but their hostility did not cease, and their conduct toward the Israelites was particularly shameful, as in the days of Saul (1 Sam 11) and of David (2 Sam 10). This may account for the cruel treatment meted out to them in the war that followed (2 Sam 12:26-31). They seem to have been completely subdued by David and their capital was taken, and we find a better spirit manifested afterward, for Nahash of Rabbah showed kindness to him when a fugitive (2 Sam 17:27-29). Their country came into the possession of Jeroboam, on the division of the kingdom, and when the Syrians of Damascus deprived the kingdom of Israel of their possessions east of the Jordan, the Ammonites became subjects of Benhadad, and we find a contingent of 1,000 of them serving as allies of that king in the great battle of the Syrians with the Assyrians at Qarqar (854 BC) in the reign of Shalmaneser II. They may have regained their old territory when Tiglath-pileser carried off the Israelites East of the Jordan into captivity (2 Ki 15:29 1 Ch 5:26). Their hostility to both kingdoms, Judah and Israel, was often manifested. In the days of Jehoshaphat they joined with the Moabites in an attack upon him, but met with disaster (2 Ch 20). They paid tribute to Jotham (2 Ch 27:5). After submitting to Tiglath-pileser they were generally tributary to Assyria, but we have mention of their joining In the general uprising that took place under Sennacherib but they submitted and we find them tributary in the reign of Esarhaddon. Their hostility to Judah is shown in their joining the Chaldeans to destroy it (2 Ki 24:2). Their cruelty is denounced by the prophet Amos (1:13), and their destruction by Jer (49:1-6), Ezek (21:28-32), Zeph (2:8,9). Their murder of Gedaliah (2 Ki 25:22-26 Jer 40:14) was a dastardly act. Tobiah the Ammonites united with Sanballat to oppose Neh (Neh 4), and their opposition to the Jews did not cease with the establishment of the latter in Judea. They joined the Syrians in their wars with the Maccabees and were defeated by Judas (1 Mac 5:6). Their religion was a degrading and cruel superstition. Their chief god was Molech, or Moloch, to whom they offered human sacrifices (1 Ki 11:7) against which Israel was especially warned (Lev 20:2-5). This worship was common to other tribes for we find it mentioned among the Phoenicians. https://www.bible-history.com/isbe/A/AMMON+AMMONITES/

Jeremiah 41:10 - Then Ishmael carried away captive all the residue of the people that [were] in Mizpah, [even] the king's daughters, and all the people that remained in Mizpah, whom Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had committed to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah carried them away captive, and departed to go over to the Ammonites .

2 Chronicles 27:5 - He fought also with the king of the Ammonites , and prevailed against them. And the children of Ammon gave him the same year an hundred talents of silver, and ten thousand measures of wheat, and ten thousand of barley. So much did the children of Ammon pay unto him, both the second year, and the third.

Jeremiah 27:3 - And send them to the king of Edom, and to the king of Moab, and to the king of the Ammonites , and to the king of Tyrus, and to the king of Zidon, by the hand of the messengers which come to Jerusalem unto Zedekiah king of Judah

Jeremiah 49:2 - Therefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will cause an alarm of war to be heard in Rabbah of the Ammonites and it shall be a desolate heap, and her daughters shall be burned with fire: then shall Israel be heir unto them that were his heirs, saith the LORD.

Ezekiel 21:28 - And thou, son of man, prophesy and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD concerning the Ammonites , and concerning their reproach even say thou, The sword, the sword [is] drawn: for the slaughter [it is] furbished, to consume because of the glittering:

Ezra 9:1 - Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying, The people of Israel, and the priests, and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the people of the lands, [doing] according to their abominations, [even] of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites , the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites.

Ezekiel 25:3 - And say unto the Ammonites , Hear the word of the Lord GOD Thus saith the Lord GOD Because thou saidst, Aha, against my sanctuary, when it was profaned and against the land of Israel, when it was desolate and against the house of Judah, when they went into captivity

Jeremiah 49:1 - Concerning the Ammonites , thus saith the LORD Hath Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why [then] doth their king inherit Gad, and his people dwell in his cities?

1 Kings 11:1 - But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites , Edomites, Zidonians, [and] Hittites

2 Chronicles 20:1 - It came to pass after this also, [that] the children of Moab, and the children of Ammon, and with them [other] beside the Ammonites , came against Jehoshaphat to battle.

Deuteronomy 2:20 - (That also was accounted a land of giants: giants dwelt therein in old time and the Ammonites call them Zamzummims

1 Samuel 11:11 - And it was [so] on the morrow, that Saul put the people in three companies and they came into the midst of the host in the morning watch, and slew the Ammonites until the heat of the day: and it came to pass, that they which remained were scattered, so that two of them were not left together.

Jeremiah 40:11 - Likewise when all the Jews that [were] in Moab, and among the Ammonites , and in Edom, and that [were] in all the countries, heard that the king of Babylon had left a remnant of Judah, and that he had set over them Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan

Nehemiah 4:7 - But it came to pass, [that] when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites , and the Ashdodites, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, [and] that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth,

Jeremiah 40:14 - And said unto him, Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee? But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not.

2 Chronicles 26:8 - And the Ammonites gave gifts to Uzziah: and his name spread abroad [even] to the entering in of Egypt for he strengthened [himself] exceedingly.

Ezekiel 25:5 - And I will make Rabbah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couchingplace for flocks: and ye shall know that I [am] the LORD.

1 Kings 11:5 - For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites .

Ezekiel 21:20 - Appoint a way, that the sword may come to Rabbath of the Ammonites , and to Judah in Jerusalem the defenced.

Jeremiah 41:15 - But Ishmael the son of Nethaniah escaped from Johanan with eight men, and went to the Ammonites .

Ezekiel 25:2 - Son of man, set thy face against the Ammonites , and prophesy against them

Ezekiel 25:10 - Unto the men of the east with the Ammonites , and will give them in possession, that the Ammonites may not be remembered among the nations.

1 Chronicles 19:2 - And David said, I will shew kindness unto Hanun the son of Nahash, because his father shewed kindness to me. And David sent messengers to comfort him concerning his father. So the servants of David came into the land of the children of Ammon to Hanun, to comfort him.

Judges 10:6 - And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon , and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the LORD, and served not him.

Judges 11:29 - Then the Spirit of the LORD came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over [unto] the children of Ammon .

2 Samuel 12:9 - Wherefore hast thou despised the commandment of the LORD, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife [to be] thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of Ammon .

2 Samuel 10:2 - Then said David, I will shew kindness unto Hanun the son of Nahash, as his father shewed kindness unto me. And David sent to comfort him by the hand of his servants for his father. And David's servants came into the land of the children of Ammon .

2 Samuel 10:3 - And the princes of the children of Ammon said unto Hanun their lord, Thinkest thou that David doth honour thy father, that he hath sent comforters unto thee? hath not David [rather] sent his servants unto thee, to search the city, and to spy it out, and to overthrow it?

2 Chronicles 20:23 - For the children of Ammon and Moab stood up against the inhabitants of mount Seir, utterly to slay and destroy [them]: and when they had made an end of the inhabitants of Seir, every one helped to destroy another.

Judges 11:36 - And she said unto him, My father, [if] thou hast opened thy mouth unto the LORD, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth forasmuch as the LORD hath taken vengeance for thee of thine enemies, [even] of the children of Ammon .

2 Kings 23:13 - And the high places that [were] before Jerusalem, which [were] on the right hand of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon , did the king defile.

2 Kings 24:2 - And the LORD sent against him bands of the Chaldees, and bands of the Syrians, and bands of the Moabites, and bands of the children of Ammon , and sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the LORD, which he spake by his servants the prophets.

1 Chronicles 20:1 - And it came to pass, that after the year was expired, at the time that kings go out [to battle], Joab led forth the power of the army, and wasted the country of the children of Ammon , and came and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried at Jerusalem. And Joab smote Rabbah, and destroyed it.

2 Samuel 10:11 - And he said, If the Syrians be too strong for me, then thou shalt help me: but if the children of Ammon be too strong for thee, then I will come and help thee.

1 Chronicles 19:12 - And he said, If the Syrians be too strong for me, then thou shalt help me: but if the children of Ammon be too strong for thee, then I will help thee.

Deuteronomy 3:11 - For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants behold, his bedstead [was] a bedstead of iron [is] it not in Rabbath of the children of Ammon ? nine cubits [was] the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.

Zephaniah 2:9 - Therefore [as] I live, saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, Surely Moab shall be as Sodom, and the children of Ammon as Gomorrah, [even] the breeding of nettles, and saltpits, and a perpetual desolation: the residue of my people shall spoil them, and the remnant of my people shall possess them.

Judges 10:17 - Then the children of Ammon were gathered together, and encamped in Gilead. And the children of Israel assembled themselves together, and encamped in Mizpeh.

2 Samuel 12:31 - And he brought forth the people that [were] therein, and put [them] under saws, and under harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the brickkiln: and thus did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon . So David and all the people returned unto Jerusalem.

Joshua 12:2 - Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, [and] ruled from Aroer, which [is] upon the bank of the river Arnon, and from the middle of the river, and from half Gilead, even unto the river Jabbok, [which is] the border of the children of Ammon

1 Chronicles 20:3 - And he brought out the people that [were] in it, and cut [them] with saws, and with harrows of iron, and with axes. Even so dealt David with all the cities of the children of Ammon . And David and all the people returned to Jerusalem.

Deuteronomy 3:16 - And unto the Reubenites and unto the Gadites I gave from Gilead even unto the river Arnon half the valley, and the border even unto the river Jabbok, [which is] the border of the children of Ammon

Judges 11:27 - Wherefore I have not sinned against thee, but thou doest me wrong to war against me: the LORD the Judge be judge this day between the children of Israel and the children of Ammon .

1 Samuel 12:12 - And when ye saw that Nahash the king of the children of Ammon came against you, ye said unto me, Nay but a king shall reign over us: when the LORD your God [was] your king.

Judges 12:1 - And the men of Ephraim gathered themselves together, and went northward, and said unto Jephthah, Wherefore passedst thou over to fight against the children of Ammon , and didst not call us to go with thee? we will burn thine house upon thee with fire.

2 Samuel 11:1 - And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth [to battle], that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel and they destroyed the children of Ammon , and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem.

1 Chronicles 19:3 - But the princes of the children of Ammon said to Hanun, Thinkest thou that David doth honour thy father, that he hath sent comforters unto thee? are not his servants come unto thee for to search, and to overthrow, and to spy out the land?

Judges 11:33 - And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, [even] twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel.

Jeremiah 9:26 - Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon , and Moab, and all [that are] in the utmost corners, that dwell in the wilderness: for all [these] nations [are] uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel [are] uncircumcised in the heart.

1 Kings 11:33 - Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon , and have not walked in my ways, to do [that which is] right in mine eyes, and [to keep] my statutes and my judgments, as [did] David his father.

Judges 11:8 - And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, Therefore we turn again to thee now, that thou mayest go with us, and fight against the children of Ammon , and be our head over all the inhabitants of Gilead.

2 Samuel 10:19 - And when all the kings [that were] servants to Hadarezer saw that they were smitten before Israel, they made peace with Israel, and served them. So the Syrians feared to help the children of Ammon any more.

Related Resources about The Am monites

Map of the Ammonites Territory (Bible History Online) Map of the Territory of the Ancient Ammonites The Ammonites (sons of Ammon) according to the Bible originated because of an incestuous relationship between .
https://www.bible-history.com/geography/maps/map_of_ammonites_territory.html

AMMON AMMONITES in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (Bible History . Thus, Israel helped Ammonites by destroying their old enemies, and this makes their conduct at a later period the more reprehensible. .
wwwestbible-history.com/isbe/A/AMMON+AMMONITES/

Ammonite - Biblical Meaning of Ammonite in Eastons Bible . Ammonite - Biblical Meaning for Ammonite in Eastons Bible Dictionary (Bible History Online)
wwwestbible-history.com/eastons/A/Ammonite/

Ammonites - Map of Ancient Israel (Old Testament Maps) Ammonites - Clickable Map of Israel in Old Testament Times.
https://www.bible-history.com/geography/ancient-israel/ot/ammonites.html

[PDF] Map of The Ammonites Territory. THE GREAT SEA. (MEDITERRANEAN SEA). Jordan River. SALT SEA / DEAD SEA. KADESH. BARNEA. RED SEA. WILDERNESS OF PARAN .
wwwestbible-history.com/geography/maps/Map-of-Ammonites-Territory.pdf

AMMON+AMMONITES in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (Bible History . "Definition for 'AMMON+AMMONITES'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". bible-history.com - ISBE 1915. Copyright Information .
wwwestbible-history.com/isbe/A/AMMON%3B%2BAMMONITES/

[PDF] MAP OF THE NATIONS DEFEATED BY KING DAVID. PHILISTINES EDOMITES AMALEKITES AMMONITES MOABITES Damascus. J e ru s a le m. A. R. A. M. M. East D .
wwwestbible-history.com/maps/Map-of-Nations-Defeated-byDavid.pdf

Map of Ancient Israel - Philadelphia Rabbah Rabbah or Rabbath Ammon was the capital city of the Ammonites, on the border of the desert, near the River Jabbok. There was an important junction of roads .
https://www.bible-history.com/geography/ancient-israel/philadelphia-rabbah.html

Abel Keramin - Map of Ancient Israel (Old Testament Maps) A'bel-cher'a-mim was the meadow of vineyards and was located east of the Jordan River and the place where Jephthah pursued the Ammonites to (Judges 11:33). .
wwwestbible-history.com/geography/ancient. /ot/abel_keramin.html

TIMOTHEUS in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (Bible History Online) The Greek name for an Ammonite leader is striking: (a) he may have been a genuine Ammonite with a Greek name, or (b) a Syro-Macedonian officer placed by .
wwwestbible-history.com/isbe/T/TIMOTHEUS/


After a year in Vietnam, Douglas Smith was going home, and the Army interviewed him as part of a program to find out what worked and what didn't. Smith had first served on the staff of 9th Infantry Division, then spent six months commanding a mechanized infantry battalion. Mechanized infantry had different strengths and weaknesses than regular 'leg' infantry or airmobile troops, and Smith used different tactics to both minimize his risks and get the most from his men and equipment.


The History of Armenia

Armenia is one of the oldest countries in the world with a recorded history of about 3500 years. The oldest known ancestors of modern Armenians, the Hayasa-Azzi tribes, also known as Proto-Armenians, were indigenous to the Armenian Highland in Eastern Anatolia. These tribes formed the Nairi tribal union, which existed until late 13th century BC. The legendary forefather of Armenians, Hayk, famous for his battles with Babylonian ruler Bel, most likely was one of the Hayasa tribal leaders. The words 'Nairi' and 'Nairian' are still used by Armenians as poetic synonyms of the words 'Armenia' and 'Armenian'.

At the end of the second millennium BC, another Indo-European ethnic group, closely related to Thracians and Phrygians and referred to by the Greeks as Armens, migrated to the Armenian Highland from Northern Balkans. According to a Greek myth, which actually reflects this tribal migration, the forefather of Armenians - Armenios - was one of the Argonauts, accompanying Jason in his quest for the Golden Fleece. In the year 1115 BC, king Tiglath Pileser I of Assyria reports a battle with a force of 20,000 Armens in the Gadmokh province of Assyria.

The mixture of Armens with the indigenous Hayasa eventually produced the Armenian people as it is known today. The existence of two major segments in the Armenian people is best of all illustrated by the fact that Armenians call themselves "Hay" and their country "Hayastan" after Hayasa, while other peoples call them Armenians and their country Armenia after the Armens. The Armenian language is basically the language of Armens, which is the only survivor of the now extinct Thraco-Phrygian group. It incorporated a large number of Hayasa words and grammatical features, as well as a significant number of non-Indo-European words from minor ethnic groups, which also took part in the ethnogenesis of Armenians.

The first significant state of the Armenian Highland was the highly advanced Kingdom of Ararat (with the capital in Tushpa, today's Van), better known under its Assyrian name Urartu (Ararat). This state was formed in the XI century BC and existed until VII century BC. Although populated mostly by Armenians, Urartu was ruled (at least during the first centuries) by a non-Armenian and non-Indo-European dynasty. In 782 BC the Urartian king Argishti I founded the fortified city of Erebuni, which is today's Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. Another major city in the Valley of Ararat was Argishti-khinili, also founded by Argishti I in the year 775 BC.

In the late VII century BC Urartu, weakened by Scythian invasions, fell, but after several decades was revived under the Armenian Yervanduni (the Orontides) dynasty with the capital in Armavir, former Argishti-khinili. The revived kingdom was already called Armenia by its neighbours, but in some languages the older name, Urartu, was still in use. In the famous tri-lingual Behistun inscription of Persian king Darius the Great (522-486) the same country is referred to as 'Armenia' in the Persian and Elamite versions, and 'Urartu' in the Akkadian version.

Artashisian dynasty, First Armenian Kingdom

Armenia under the Yervanduni dynasty soon became a satrapy of the mighty Achemenide Persia, and later part of the Seleucid Empire. It restored its full independence in 190 BC under the king Artashes I, founder of the Artashesian dynasty (the Artaxiads).

The kingdom started to expand and reached its peak during the reign of Tigran II, also called Tigran the Great (95-55 BC). Under Tigran, Armenia ascended to a pinnacle of power unique in its history and became the strongest state in Asia Minor. Extensive territories were taken from Parthia, which was compelled to sign a treaty of alliance. Iberia (Georgia), Caucasian Albania, and Atropatene had already accepted Tigran' suzerainty when the Syrians offered him their crown (83 BC). Tigran penetrated as far south as Ptolemais (modern Akko in Israel). As a result, the empire of Tigran II stretched from the Caspian Sea in the East to the Mediterranean Sea in West, and from Mesopotamia in the South to the river Kura in North. Political strengthening and territorial expansion of Armenia was accompanied also by unprecedented cultural development, with rich cultural heritage of Urartu intermixing with Hellenistic features. As a result Armenia during the Artashesian period became one of the most Hellenized and culturally advanced countries of Asia Minor.

After the death of Tigran II, Armenia was reduced back to its ethnic Armenian territory and found itself in the middle of a long war campaign between Rome and Persia, with each superpower trying to have Armenia as its ally, as the military assistance with Armenia was crucial for gaining political superiority in Asia Minor.

Arshakunian dynasty, Second Armenian Kingdom

Arab invasion and Byzantine Empire

By the end of the IV century the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Persia officially established their spheres of influence in Armenia. The Arshakuni dynasty was dissolved in the year 428, and eastern part of Armenia was annexed to Persia, while the western part was put under Byzantine rule. The Sassanids were forcing Armenians to convert to Zoroastrianism, causing the Armenian revolt of 451 under the leadership of prince Vartan Mamikonian, commander-in-chief of the Armenian army. Although the Armenian forces, outnumbered by the Persians, actually lost the legendary battle of Avarayr, and Vartan Mamikonian himself was killed, this turned out to be a significant victory for Armenians, as Persians eventually gave up their efforts to convert and assimilate Armenians, and were forced to agree to much higher level of autonomy for Armenia.

The spiritual independence of Armenia was further asserted in 554, when the second Council of Dvin (capital of Armenia of that period) rejected the dyophysite formula of the Council of Chalcedon (451), a decisive step that cut Armenians off from the Roman and Greek churches as surely as they were already ideologically severed from the East.

By the time of Arab invasion in 634 Armenia, ruled by prince Theodore Rshtuni, was virtually independent. After conquering Persia, the Arabs started to concentrate their armies against Armenia, but didn't manage to conquer the country until 654.

Bagratunian dynasty, Third Armenian Kingdom

After more than two centuries of struggle with the Arab Caliphate, Armenia regained its independence in 886, and both the Caliphate and Constantinople recognized prince Ashot Bagratuni as the king of Armenia. During the rule of the Bagratuni dynasty Armenia reached its peak in political, social and cultural development. The capital of Armenia of that period, Ani, was a magnificent city, known as "a city of one thousand and one churches". The Armenian architecture of the Bagratuni period, especially the dome laying techniques, for which Armenian architects were notorious, significantly influenced the Byzantine and European architectural styles.

At the end of the 10th century the Byzantine Empire, although ruled by an imperial dynasty of Armenian origin, adopted a near-sighted policy of weakening Armenia and eventually annexed it in 1045, thus depriving itself of an effective shield against disastrous invasion of Turkic nomads from Central Asia.

Rubinian dynasty, Fourth Armenian Kingdom

Before the fall of the Bagratuni kingdom a number of Armenian princes managed to escape from Armenia and found refuge in Cilicia, a region at the north-eastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea, where Armenians were the majority of population. In 1080 their leader, prince Ruben, founded in Cilicia a new kingdom, which became known as Cilician Armenia, or Armenia Minor (Little Armenia). The new Armenian state established very close relations with European countries and played a very important role during the Crusades, providing the Christian armies a safe heaven and provision on their way towards Jerusalem. Intermarriage with European crusading families was common, and European religious, political, and cultural influence was strong. The royal court of Cilicia and the kingdom itself were reformed on Western models, and many French terms entered the Armenian language. Cilician Armenia also played an important role in the trade of the Venetians and Genoese with the East.

Enduring constant attacks by the Turks, Mongols, Egyptians and Byzantines, Cilician Armenia survived for three centuries and fell to Egyptian Mameluks in 1375. The last Armenian king of Cilicia, Levon VI Lousinian, emigrated to France, where his grave still can be seen in the St. Denis Cathedral of Paris. The title "King of Armenia" passed to the kings of Cyprus, thence to the Venetians, and was later claimed by the house of Savoy.

Armenia under turkish rule

After the fall of the Cilician Armenia, the historical Armenian homeland, or Greater Armenia, was subject to various Muslim warlords, and eventually was divided between the Ottoman Empire (Western Armenia) and Persia (Eastern Armenia). Several Armenian principalities managed to preserve their independence or autonomy. The most significant among those was the Federation of Khamsa in Artsakh (today's Nagorno-Karabakh), which consisted of five allied principalities. De facto independent Armenian principalities existed also in the regions of Sasun and Zeytun in Western Armenia.

Being for centuries at the edge of physical annihilation, Armenians nevertheless managed to preserve and develop their national, religious and cultural identity. Apart from architecture, Armenians successfully manifested themselves in literature, painting, sculpture and music. Armenians were the 10th nation in the world to put their language in print.

Armenian Question

In 1828 the Russian Empire captured Eastern Armenia from Persia. Contact with liberal thought in Russia and Western Europe was a factor in the Armenian cultural renaissance of the 19th century. In the Ottoman Empire, the Armenians initially benefited with the rest of the population from the measures of reform known as the Tanzimat, and in 1863 a special Armenian constitution was recognized by the Ottoman government. These liberties were however unknown outside Constantinople, and the condition of Armenians in Anatolia was unbearable. A so-called "Armenia Question" emerged in the relations between the Ottoman Empire - "the sick man of Europe" - and European superpowers. After the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, in which Eastern Armenians had taken part, Russia insisted in the Treaty of San Stefano that reforms be carried out among the sultan's Armenian subjects and that their protection against the Kurds be guaranteed. This demand was softened at the Congress of Berlin, but the "Armenian Question" remained a factor in international politics, with Great Britain taking on the role of Turkey's protector until the end of the century.

Having lost most of its territory in the Balkans, the Ottoman Empire was afraid of losing Western Armenia as well, which would mean the end of the Ottoman dream of creating a pan-Turkic empire, stretching from Balkans to the Yellow Sea. A new state policy was formed, aiming at the final resolution of the "Armenian Question" through total annihilation of Armenians in their historic homeland of 3500 years. During the reign of sultan Abdulhamid Armenian massacres became a common phenomenon. In 1895, after Abdulhamid had felt compelled to promise Britain, France, and Russia that he would carry out reforms, large-scale systematic massacres took place in the Armenian provinces. In 1896 more massacres broke out in the capital and in Cilicia.


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