Robert E. Lee in War and Peace - The Photographic History of a Confederate and American Icon, Donald A. Hopkins

Robert E. Lee in War and Peace - The Photographic History of a Confederate and American Icon, Donald A. Hopkins


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Robert E. Lee in War and Peace - The Photographic History of a Confederate and American Icon, Donald A. Hopkins

Robert E. Hopkins

The main focus of the book is on the sixty-one known 'from life' photographs of Robert E. Lee (pictures printed from the original negative). The aim is to look at each picture, describe when and where it was taken, and by whom, and at the same time provide a brief history of the development of photography during this period, and potted biographies of the photographers.

Lee was photographs on a surprisingly small number of occasions. Only two pre-war pictures are known, followed by a handful of wartime photos and a larger number of post-war photos, when images of the defeated general were highly in demand.

I was fascinated by the number of 'altered images' of Lee. This started early in the Civil War, when the head of Lee from the second pre-war photograph was altered to replace his civilian cloths with a military uniform, but quickly became the main source of 'new' photographs of Lee, with an astounding number of doctored versions of most of the original photos produced.

This is a fascinating book. It covers the period of the birth of photography, and the author has produced some interesting material on that topic. The limited number of original photos of Lee have been modified and altered countless times, so there is a detective story attached to many pictures. Although this is quite a narrowly focused book, I found it a very interesting read.

Chapters
1 - Antebellum Photographs of Robert E. Lee
2 - Civil War Period Photography
3 - Robert E. Lee's Wartime Photographers
4 - General Lee as He Never Was
5 - A General Steps Forward
6 - In All His Martial Splendor
7 - Wartime Original 'From Life' Images of R. E. Lee
8 - Robert E Lee's Postwar Photographers
9 - A Warrior Transformed
10 - The General Mounts Up
11 - Lee the Academician
12 - A Champion for Unity, Both North and South
13 - The Final Years
14 - Mysteries of Time and Place
15 - The Legend Lives On

Appendices
A - Evolution of the Daguerreotype Portrait
B - A Family Resemblance
C - The Bazaar at Liverpool
D - Lee in Profile
E - Prints from Photographs
F - An Interview with Author Donald A. Hopkins

Author: Donald A. Hopkins
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 288
Publisher: Savas Beatie
Year: 2013



Robert E. Lee is well known as a Confederate general and as an educator later in life, but most people are exposed to the same handful of images of one of America’s most famous sons. It has been almost seven decades since anyone has attempted a serious study of Lee in photographs, and with Don Hopkins’s painstakingly researched and lavishly illustrated Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, the wait is finally over.

Dr. Hopkins, a Mississippi surgeon and lifelong student of the Civil War and Southern history with a recent interest in Robert E. Lee’s “from life” photographs, scoured manuscript repositories and private collections across the country to locate every known Lee image (61 in all) in existence today. The detailed text accompanying these images provides a sweeping history of Lee’s life and a compelling discussion of antique photography, with biographical sketches of all of Lee’s known photographers. The importance of information within the photographer’s imprint or backmark is emphasized throughout the book. Hopkins offers a substantial amount of previously unknown information about these images, how each came to be, and the mistakes in fact and attribution other authors and writers have made describing photographs of Lee to the reading public. Many of the images in this book are being published for the first time.

In addition to a few rare photographs and formats that were uncovered during the research phase of Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, the author offers—for the first time—definitive and conclusive attribution of the identity of the photographer of the well-known Lee “in the field” images, and reproduces a startling imperial-size photograph of Lee made by Alexander Gardner of Washington, D.C.

Students of American history in general and the Civil War in particular, as well as collectors and dealers who deal with Civil War era photography, will find Hopkins’s outstanding Robert E. Lee in War and Peace a true contribution to the growing literature on the Civil War.

About the Author: Born in the rural South, Donald A. Hopkins has maintained a fascination with Southern history since he was a child. In addition to published papers in the medical field, he has written several Civil War articles and The Little Jeff: The Jeff Davis Legion, Cavalry, Army of Northern Virginia for which he received the United Daughters of the Confederacy’s Jefferson Davis Historical Gold Medal. Dr. Hopkins served as Battalion Surgeon for the 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, (better known as “The Walking Dead”) in Vietnam. He was awarded the purple heart and the Bronze Star with combat “V.” Dr. Hopkins is a surgeon in Gulfport, Mississippi, where he lives with his wife Cindy and their golden retriever Dixie.


Robert E. Lee in War and Peace: The Photographic History of a Confederate and American Icon (PB)

Robert E. Lee is well known as a Confederate general and as an educator later in life, but most people are exposed to the same handful of images of one of America&rsquos most famous sons. It has been almost seven decades since anyone has attempted a serious study of Lee in photographs, and with Don Hopkins&rsquos painstakingly researched and lavishly illustrated Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, the wait is finally over.

Dr. Hopkins, a Mississippi surgeon and lifelong student of the Civil War and Southern history with a recent interest in 19th Century photography, scoured manuscript repositories and private collections across the country to locate every known Lee image (61 in all) in existence today. The detailed text accompanying these images provides a sweeping history of Lee&rsquos life and a compelling discussion of antique photography, with biographical sketches of all of Lee&rsquos known photographers. Hopkins offers a substantial amount of previously unknown information about these images, how each came to be, and the mistakes in fact and attribution other authors and writers have made describing photographs of Lee to the reading public. Many of the images in this book are being published for the first time.

In addition to several rare photographs uncovered during the research phase of Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, the author offers&mdashfor the first time&mdashdefinitive and conclusive attribution of the identity of the photographer of the well known Lee &ldquoin the field&rdquo images, and reproduces a startling imperial-size photograph of Lee made by Alexander Gardner of Washington, D.C. Other portraits previously attributed to Michael Miley of Lexington, Virginia, are shown to be instead the product of Charles Rees of Richmond.

Students of American history in general and the Civil War in particular, as well as collectors and dealers who deal with Civil War era photography, will find Hopkins&rsquo outstanding Robert E. Lee in War and Peace a true contribution to the growing literature on the Civil War.

&ldquoRobert E. Lee in War and Peace is the most scholarly and serious book on Lee and photography since the pioneering work by Roy Meredith nearly sixty years ago. Hopkins&rsquos Lee offers new information on every picture of the supreme great gentleman Lee, including each photo and its maker. This is an exciting new work that will stand for many years as the best book on this subject.&rdquo (Dr. John O&rsquoBrien, contributor to Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) and Mary Chesnut&rsquos A Diary from Dixie (2012))

&ldquoWith the publication of Robert E. Lee in War and Peace: The Photographic History of a Confederate and American Icon, Donald Hopkins has accomplished an unprecedented and noteworthy feat: he has published every known photograph of Robert E. Lee in a single volume. It&rsquos a terrific browsing book, but for those who want more, Hopkins provides an exhaustive examination of each image and where it came from, and identifies the photographer and everything known about the image. Being able to examine the full visual array of known images of Lee in a single fascinating volume, history students and Lee devotees alike will gain a better sense of one of the most idolized men in American history.&rdquo (Bob Zeller, President and Co-Founder, The Center for Civil War Photography)

&ldquoDr. Donald Hopkins has transformed what had once been familiar images cloaked in mystery into a clean and painstakingly researched chronology of the famous Confederate general and his photographers. It is a compelling and fascinating read.&rdquo (Ann Drury Wellford, Manager of Photographic Services, Museum of the Confederacy)

&ldquoThis is an iconic revelation. In decades of photographic research, I have never seen several of these Lee images. Equally impressive is the background research that Hopkins employs to provide context and enriched meaning to each image. His work deserves to be acclaimed a milestone in Lee biography as well as in the broader field of Civil War photographic history.&rdquo (William C. Davis, award-winning Civil War author, Virginia Center for Civil War Studies, Virginia Tech)

&ldquoThis new work by Dr. Donald Hopkins marks the first time every known image of General Lee photographed during his lifetime has been brought together between the covers of one book. Hopkins, experienced physician and historian that he is, patiently, analytically, and creatively has spun together the first true definitive collection of &lsquolikenesses&rsquo of Lee in war and peace. Each image is accompanied with well-researched supporting documentation. Robert E. Lee in War and Peace will be standard in the library of every individual and public repository with any interest in the general and the &lsquoLate Unpleasantness.&rsquo&rdquo (H. Grady Howell, Jr., Historian, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, and noted Civil War author of For Dixie Land I&rsquoll Take My Stand! (4 vols.))

"The author has done a most impressive job of accurately portraying the general&rsquos photographic history, while linking it to the early development of portrait photography in America. All those interested in Lee or in nineteenth-century American photography will definitely want to add Robert E. Lee in War and Peace to their library" (The Journal of America&rsquos Military Past)

Born in the rural South, Donald A. Hopkins has maintained a fascination with Southern history since he was a child. In addition to published papers in the medical field, he has written several Civil War articles and The Little Jeff: The Jeff Davis Legion, Cavalry, Army of Northern Virginia for which he received the United Daughters of the Confederacy’s Jefferson Davis Historical Gold Medal. Dr. Hopkins served as Battalion Surgeon for the 1st Battalion, 9th Marines, (better known as “The Walking Dead”) in Vietnam. He was awarded the Purple Heart and the Bronze Star with combat “V.” Dr. Hopkins is a surgeon in Gulfport, Mississippi, where he lives with his wife Cindy and their golden retriever Dixie.


Reviews

Use spaces to separate tags. Use single quotes (') for phrases.

Overview

Robert E. Lee is well known as a Confederate general and as an educator later in life, but most people are exposed to the same handful of images of one of America's most famous sons. It has been almost seven decades since anyone has attempted a serious study of Lee in photographs, and with Don Hopkins's painstakingly researched and lavishly illustrated Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, now available in paperback, the wait is finally over.

Dr. Hopkins, a Mississippi surgeon and lifelong student of the Civil War and Southern history with a recent interest in Robert E. Lee's "from life” photographs, scoured manuscript repositories and private collections across the country to locate every known Lee image (61 in all) in existence today. The detailed text accompanying these images provides a sweeping history of Lee's life and a compelling discussion of antique photography, with biographical sketches of all of Lee's known photographers. The importance of information within the photographer's imprint or backmark is emphasized throughout the book. Hopkins offers a substantial amount of previously unknown information about these images, how each came to be, and the mistakes in fact and attribution other authors and writers have made describing photographs of Lee to the reading public. Many of the images in this book are being published for the first time.

In addition to a few rare photographs and formats that were uncovered during the research phase of Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, the author offers—for the first time—definitive and conclusive attribution of the identity of the photographer of the well-known Lee "in the field” images, and reproduces a startling imperial-size photograph of Lee made by Alexander Gardner of Washington, D.C.

Students of American history in general and the Civil War in particular, as well as collectors and dealers who deal with Civil War era photography, will find Hopkins's outstanding Robert E. Lee in War and Peace a true contribution to the growing literature on the Civil War.


Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table

“I begin to fear the enemy will not attack us. We shall therefore have to attack him.” Robert E. Lee 30 September, 1861, Letter to John B. Floyd.

Robert E. Lee in War and Peace: the Photographic History of a Confederate and American Icon

by Dr. Donald A. Hopkins

Reviewed by TVCWRT Member John Mason

Donald A. Hopkins, a surgeon who resides in Gulfport, Mississippi, has enjoyed a lifelong fascination with American Civil War and Southern history and has now developed a recent interest in photographic history, particularly those photographs concerning Gen. Robert E. Lee. This is his first offering on this subject, although he previously published The Little Jeff: the Jeff Davis Legion, Cavalry, Army of Northern Virginia, for which he received the United Daughters of the Confederacy’s Jefferson Davis historical gold-medal. He has also published numerous articles on a number of medical as well as Civil War subjects.

Robert E Lee in War and Peace is a story within a story. First, it is a meticulously researched work that isolates and presents all of the 61 known “from life” photographs of the General still in existence. In so doing, Hopkins provides for both the historian and the collector with a veritable trove of information on when, where, and by whom these photographs were taken, along with the means to differentiate the actual “from life” pictures from the numerous copies made since. Second, it provides an in-depth history of the processes of photography. As Hopkins says, “Lee’s lifetime (1807 to 1870) spanned the period from the early development of the photographic image to the dawn of modern photography.” 1 Beginning with daguerreotypes, which were used for Lee’s first two “from life” images, he goes on to trace the history of 19th century photography and photographers.

Daguerreotypes were developed in France in 1839. The first two known images of Lee were made this way, one around 1845 with his son (although many argue that this photo is actually Lee’s brother Sydney and his son Fitzhugh. The family resemblance IS astonishing.) The second picture was taken around September, 1852, perhaps in Baltimore (but equally as possible in Alexandria, Washington, New York, or even West Point), at about the time he was appointed Superintendent of the United States Military Academy. As with the location, the exact identity of the photographer(s) is(are) also in question.

By the start of the Civil War, daguerreotypes had begun to be replaced by new and improved photographic process employing the use of negatives. These were called either ambrotypes or tintypes, depending on whether the images were fixed respectively on glass or tin. There are no known ambrotypes of Lee made “from life”, but there are two tintypes.

Dr. Hopkins proceeds to provide detailed information on all the various types of pictures

  1. Hopkins, Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, p. xii. available during this period be they collodion, Carte de Visites, or stereographic images. He also traces all of the photographers that worked with Lee, providing brief biographical sketches of each one, the addresses and locations of their offices, and much other information that would help the collector or historian differentiate as to who took what picture when. His detailed examinations of the various photographs are astounding, pointing out the smallest variations in the photos themselves, down even to the angle of Lee’s bow tie. But this attention to detail is what makes this work so important. It is just these small differences that can make the difference in determining time and place. Is it real or is it Memorex?

Every chapter (there are 15 including six appendices) is replete with photographs of General Lee, ordered chronologically, as he advances throughout his life. Most are military in nature, taken at different times during the war. But there are also a fair number taken after the war up until the time of Lee’s death. Here they are, all 61 of the “from life” originals, as well as numerous examples of the various copies other photographers made from them at later dates, be they authorized or not. Many of the pictures include the back marks and logos of the photographers (identifying marks) and even the custom stamps applied by the states were the pictures were taken. The information thus presented is invaluable.

While there are several other books on this subject available (Roy Meredith’s Lee in Life and in Legend, Eicher’s Robert E Lee: a Life Portrait, and Emery Thomas’ Album), Dr. Hopkins’ Lee in War and Peace is the only work that provides a complete cover of the subject at hand. The reader comes away not only being able to recognize the real pictures from all the copies but he/she also gains a rather intimate knowledge of the photographers and photographic techniques involved, as well as the various styles of photographs that were prepared for public consumption. There is indeed a lot of worthwhile history to be found within these pages, whatever your interest might be.

As with any work of this sort, they are always going to be some discrepancies among the experts concerning some of the subject matter. A good example found here is of the early photo in which Dr. Hopkins maintains his Lee and his son Custis. The prevailing opinion is that this picture is actually of Sydney Lee in his son Fitzhugh. Dr. Hopkins does not hide from these discussions, where they occur, but goes out of his way to fairly present both sides of the argument while providing all the evidence he used to reach his own opinion. In the end, it is up to the reader to decide with which opinion he agrees, but should that not always be the case? Critical thinking, after all, is essential to the historian.

Dr. Hopkins intended Lee in War and Peace to be the definitive work on the photographic history of the great General. It was obviously a labor of love. The pictures are magnificent, the research impeccable. The prose is light, the chapters short and concise, and the documentation thorough. But more importantly, the information one gains on the era itself, General Lee, photography in general, and the important ability to distinguish “from life” images from copies is invaluable. This work is eminently readable, and will be enjoyed by anyone with an interest in either history or photography.


Robert E. Lee in War and Peace: Photographs of a Confederate and American Icon by Donald A. Hopkins (Hardcover, 2013)

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Monday, October 14, 2013

Comments from my book publisher

Copies of my new book Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, published by Savas Beatie, arrived last week. Savas Beatie Managing Director Ted Savas posted some comments about the book on his blog recently. I am copying them below. Brings back a lot of memories for many of us.

Savas Beatie is collecting orders for personally signed copies, so please email [email protected] if you'd like a copy signed by me. Makes a great present.

A slew of new books arrived just yesterday, which as you can imagine is always a fun day at the office. Opening those boxes is a lot like Christmas--many times a year.

Battle of Big Bethel: Crucial Clash in Early Civil War Virginia, by J. Michael Cobb, Edward B. Hicks, and Wythe Holt and

Robert E. Lee in War and Peace: The Photographic History of a confederate and American Icon, by Donald A. Hopkins, M.D.

I am of course excited by all three, but the Lee book intrigues me for many reasons, and one in particular.

As a kid I spent hours laying on my bedroom floor studying Roy Meredith's The Face of Robert E. Lee in Life and Legend (1947). It simply fascinated me. I recall using a magnifying class to study the details (I used that same glass on the same floor to try and make sense of the ridiculously small map details in Murfin's Antietam study Gleam of Bayonets, which I loved, and still do to this day).

Meredith's study is now 60+ years old and as I discovered from Dr. Hopkins's work, loaded with mistakes and woefully incomplete. Little did I know that one day I would publish what I sincerely believe is the definitive book on this topic.

Hopkins's new tome has every known Lee image, with tons of info on the photography, Lee himself, his history, and much much more. It is also professionally designed inside on photo-matte paper by Mason City friend Jim Zach, who has done many of our jackets and the inside of several books). It is also oversize at 7 x 10.

I sincerely hope you enjoy it.


Monday, October 14, 2013

Comments from my book publisher

Copies of my new book Robert E. Lee in War and Peace, published by Savas Beatie, arrived last week. Savas Beatie Managing Director Ted Savas posted some comments about the book on his blog recently. I am copying them below. Brings back a lot of memories for many of us.

Savas Beatie is collecting orders for personally signed copies, so please email [email protected] if you'd like a copy signed by me. Makes a great present.

A slew of new books arrived just yesterday, which as you can imagine is always a fun day at the office. Opening those boxes is a lot like Christmas--many times a year.

Battle of Big Bethel: Crucial Clash in Early Civil War Virginia, by J. Michael Cobb, Edward B. Hicks, and Wythe Holt and

Robert E. Lee in War and Peace: The Photographic History of a confederate and American Icon, by Donald A. Hopkins, M.D.

I am of course excited by all three, but the Lee book intrigues me for many reasons, and one in particular.

As a kid I spent hours laying on my bedroom floor studying Roy Meredith's The Face of Robert E. Lee in Life and Legend (1947). It simply fascinated me. I recall using a magnifying class to study the details (I used that same glass on the same floor to try and make sense of the ridiculously small map details in Murfin's Antietam study Gleam of Bayonets, which I loved, and still do to this day).

Meredith's study is now 60+ years old and as I discovered from Dr. Hopkins's work, loaded with mistakes and woefully incomplete. Little did I know that one day I would publish what I sincerely believe is the definitive book on this topic.

Hopkins's new tome has every known Lee image, with tons of info on the photography, Lee himself, his history, and much much more. It is also professionally designed inside on photo-matte paper by Mason City friend Jim Zach, who has done many of our jackets and the inside of several books). It is also oversize at 7 x 10.

I sincerely hope you enjoy it.


Robert E. Lee in War and Peace - The Photographic History of a Confederate and American Icon, Donald A. Hopkins - History

Confederate American Pride website has been created for that unique class of people, native to the Southeastern states, who define themselves as being, firstly, Confederates and, secondly, as Americans, and who are proud of bearing those distinctions. It is to this particular mindset of cultural awareness that this site is dedicated.

With the above in mind it has been my purpose to design Confederate American Pride as a virtual online resource for the Confederate Nationalist in need of the tools and information that is necessary to defend himself and his heritage in the war that is constantly being waged against that heritage. On its pages you will find selected articles and emails that not only define who we are and where we have come from, but how we got there numerous links to other Southern heritage organizations and websites and much, much more.

I sincerely hope that you enjoy your visit to my site and will bookmark it for future reference.

Like our page on Facebook:

Visit other websites that I manage:

The version of Dixie that you hear playing in the background of this page is sung by Lee Greenwood. It is included on his album “American Patriot,” which is available from Amazon.com through the link below.

Nathan Bedford Forrest:
A Biography

A review by Jeffrey R. White

Overall, a first-rate biography, both from a military and from psychological and spiritual sense.

Though it indeed lacks maps, the knowledgeable student of the War for Southern Independence will find those included to be sufficient. The work is not, as some have intimated in these reviews, unfair or essentially negative in its presentation of the man, Forrest. On the contary, Forrest fans will find it delightfully free of the anti-Forrest rancor which politically correct historical revisionsists are so famous for. Hurst understands that the so-called "distasteful activities" were 100% legal at the time, and presents them without undue bias. Forrest is in no way presented as any more racist than his contemporaries, and shown as he was, significantly more compassionate toward African Ameicans than many in these reviews would suggest (Did they even read the book? -- one wonders).

His celebrated ruthlessness in a fight is balanced by a historically well-established backwoods chivalry which markedly contrasts this uneducated but brilliant man (6 mo. total formal schooling), with some of his contemporaries such as the war-criminal-by-his-own-admission, Sherman. The admiration which he earned from his troops is also well-documented, though he accurately is depicted in this work as having shot both deserters and cowards in battle.

Forrest's amazing ability to size up situations at a glance, to see the unseen part of the field, and to comprehend distances and the geometry of operational and tactical logistics is well- covered.

Several longstanding misconceptions are properly laid to rest in this work, among them, that Forrest founded the Kuklos Klan - He did not. He was asked and accepted to be its first Grand Wizard (a title developed in his honor, since he was well-known as the "wizard of the saddle"). Forrest's subsequent Congressional testimony against the Klan is detailed, as is his (successful) effort to disband the Klan (the present-day Ku Klux Klan is dominated by midwesterners and northerners, is the third such organisation in history, and is descended from the first Klan in name only). Forrest's signal bravery and inimitable style comes through in this work better than in any other I have read. He stands up off the pages, whether in his manner of chasing away other beaus in competition for his bride (yes, there is even romance in this story), in his regrettable knife-killing of a subordinate who shot him in a violent dispute over lost cannon (No damn man kills me and lives!), or in his pragmatic treatment of the slaves he unflinchingly bought and sold. He was a poor scrabbler, an ambitious climber, but an exemplary fighter of unique integrity and fearless grit. The Fort Pillow battle is well-documented, presenting a dispassionate and careful discussion of the facts as ascertained from study of the collected records of all involved as well as both the Yankee propaganda against him, and his own "Keep up the Skeer" propaganda. The dispassionate discussion sheds new light on this shattering defeat which resulted in such heavy losses for the all-black regiments involved. This controversial engagement is very well-treated by Hurst.

Forrest was a one-of-a-kind man from a very different time, and an unrecognizable place to modern Americans -- even westerners. That is borne out in this very exciting book. This work is not to be read by those seeking a cartoon caricature of this towering man among men -- the finest cavalryman yet produced by the English-speaking world.

Rebel Yell: The Violence, Passion, and Redemption of Stonewall Jackson

From the author of the prizewinning New York Times bestseller Empire of the Summer Moon comes a thrilling account of how Civil War general Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson became a great and tragic American hero.

Stonewall Jackson has long been a figure of legend and romance. As much as any person in the Confederate pantheon, even Robert E. Lee, he embodies the romantic Southern notion of the virtuous lost cause. Jackson is also considered, without argument, one of our country’s greatest military figures. His brilliance at the art of war tied Abraham Lincoln and the Union high command in knots and threatened the ultimate success of the Union armies. Jackson’s strategic innovations shattered the conventional wisdom of how war was waged he was so far ahead of his time that his techniques would be studied generations into the future.

In April 1862 Jackson was merely another Confederate general in an army fighting what seemed to be a losing cause. By June he had engineered perhaps the greatest military campaign in American history and was one of the most famous men in the Western world. He had, moreover, given the Confederate cause what it had recently lacked—hope—and struck fear into the hearts of the Union.

Rebel Yell is written with the swiftly vivid narrative that is Gwynne’s hallmark and is rich with battle lore, biographical detail, and intense conflict between historical figures. Gwynne delves deep into Jackson’s private life, including the loss of his young beloved first wife and his regimented personal habits. It traces Jackson’s brilliant twenty-four-month career in the Civil War, the period that encompasses his rise from obscurity to fame and legend his stunning effect on the course of the war itself and his tragic death, which caused both North and South to grieve the loss of a remarkable American hero.

Lee's Maverick General: Daniel Harvey Hill

Among the high-ranking gray uniforms Daniel Harvey Hill caused a stir as a sash of red in a bullpen would. Hot-tempered, outspoken, he stormed his way through the Civil War, leading his soldiers at Malvern Hill and Antietam, and sometimes stepping on the toes of superiors. But he was much more than a seemingly impervious shield against Union bullets: a devout Christian, a family man, a gloomy fatalist, an intellectual. Lee’s Maverick General makes clear that he was often caught in the crossfire of military politics and ultimately made a scapegoat for the costly, barren victory at Chickamauga. Hal Bridges, drawing on Hill’s unpublished papers, offers an outsider’s inside views of Lee, Jefferson Davis, Braxton Bragg, James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, and others up and down the embattled line.

In his introduction, Gary W. Gallagher rounds out the portrait of the controversial Hill, whose reading of military affairs was always perceptive.

John Brown Gordon: Soldier Southerner American

A review by Cameron Wright

John Brown Gordon entered the war with little to no military experience. That didn't stop him, however, from rising to the rank of Lt. General and in command of the famed Second Corps of the AONV when they surrendered at Appomattox. This biography is full of details of Gordon's life from beginning until end. I purchased this book not knowing much about except for what was mentioned about him briefly in biographies of other generals that he served under. After reading this book I came away with a full understanding and appreciation for this man of great skill.

Gordon was truly a renaissance man of his times. Even if you aren't that interested about the Civil War or his role in it you should get this book to learn about the Reconstruction period and beyond in the South and Georgia specifically. His business and political involvements could almost make their own book. This is by far the definitive biography of John Brown Gordon.

"We feel that our cause is just and holy we protest solemnly in the face of mankind that we desire peace at any sacrifice save that of honour and independence we ask no conquest, no aggrandizement, no concession of any kind from the States with which we were lately confederated all we ask is to be let alone that those who never held power over us shall not now attempt our subjugation by arms."
--- President Jefferson Davis - 29 April 1861

"All that the South has ever desired was the Union as established by our forefathers should be preserved and that the government as originally organized should be administered in purity and truth."
--- General Robert E. Lee, CSA

"Governor, if I had foreseen the use these people desired to make of their victory, there would have been no surrender at Appomattox, no, sir, not by me. Had I seen these results of subjugation, I would have preferred to die at Appomattox with my brave men, my sword in this right hand."
--- General Robert E. Lee, CSA - as told to Texas ex-governor F. W. Stockdale

“Remember the precious stake involved remember the dependence of your mothers, your wives, your sisters, and your children on the result remember the fair, broad, abounding land, the happy homes and the ties that would be desolated by your defeat."
--- Albert Sidney Johnston

“I am inclined to think that General Joe Johnston was the ablest and most accomplished man that the Confederate armies ever produced. He never had the opportunity accorded to others, but he showed wonderful power as a tactician and a commander. I do not think that we had his equal for handling an army and conducting a campaign"
--- James Longstreet, 2 August 1879

“I can assure you, that the gallant hearts that throb beneath its sacred folds, will only be content, when this glorious banner is planted first and foremost in the coming struggle for our independence."
--- John Bell Hood

"General, unless he offers us honorable terms, come back and let us fight it out!"
--- James Longstreet, to Robert E. Lee as he rode off to discuss terms for surrender with General Grant at Appomattox.

"Captain, my religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed. God has fixed the time for my death. I do not concern myself about that, but to be always ready, no matter when it may overtake me. That is the way all men should live, and then all would be equally brave."
--- Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson

“The Army of Northern Virginia was never defeated. It merely wore itself out whipping the enemy."
--- Jubal A. Early

“Major, we haven't taken Washington, but we scared Abe Lincoln like hell."
--- Jubal A. Early to one of his officers after withdrawing from the outskirts of Washington, D.C., near Fort Stevens.

“Honest and outspoken, honorable and uncompromising, Jubal A. Early epitomized much that was the Southern Confederacy. His self-reliance, courage, sagacity, and devotion to the cause brought confidence then just as it inspires reverence now."
--- James I. Robertson, Jr., Alumni Distinguished Professor of History, Virginia Tech Member of the Board, Jubal A. Early Preservation Trust.

As Richard S. Ewell rode into Gettysburg with John B. Gordon at his side in 1863, Ewell reeled in his saddle immediately after the ominous sound of a bullet hitting home. Anxiously, Gordon asked, “Are you hurt, sir?" General Ewell replied unconcernedly, “No, no, it doesn’t hurt a bit to be shot in a wooden leg!"
--- R. S. Ewell to John B. Gordon at Gettysburg.

“Damn you, if you will not follow me, I’ll die alone!"
--- A. P. Hill, Fraysers Farm, Seven Days.

"Next to these two officers, [Longstreet and Jackson] I consider General A.P. Hill the best commander with me. He fights his troops well and takes good care of them."
--- Robert E. Lee, Nov 1862, when President Davis asked Lee for recommendations for corps command.

"I have never, on the field of battle, sent you where I was unwilling to go myself nor would I now advise you to a course which I felt myself unwilling to pursue. You have been good soldiers, you can be good citizens."
--- Nathan Bedford Forrest, in his farewell address to his troops at Gainesville, Alabama, May 9, 1865.

"I loved the old government in 1861. I loved the old Constitution yet. I think it is the best government in the world, if administered as it was before the war. I do not hate it I am opposing now only the radical revolutionists who are trying to destroy it. I believe that party to be composed, as I know it is in Tennessee, of the worst men on Gods earth-men who would not hesitate at no crime, and who have only one object in view-to enrich themselves."
--- Nathan Bedford Forrest, in an interview shortly after the war.

"To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought. To your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier's good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is presented to future generations."
--- Lt. General Stephen Dill Lee, Commander General, United Confederate Veterans, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 25, 1906.

"The field had been completely swept, and the foe driven back to the river under shelter of the fire from his gunboats. It needed only the inspiring presence and skillful hand of the master-spirit that had raised and guided the storm of battle to press the enemy to a surrender, and thus put the finishing stroke to one of the most brilliant victories of which the annals of war contain a record. But alas! that master-spirit was no more of earth. In the very moment of victory, the battle, and with it seemingly the Confederate cause, was lost."
--- Brigadier General Alexander P. Stewart, remarking upon the death of General Albert Sidney Johnston at the Battle of Shiloh.

"You have no right to ask, or expect that she will at once profess unbounded love to that Union from which for four years she tried to escape at the cost of her best blood and all her treasure. Nor can you believe her to be so unutterably hypocritical, so base, as to declare that the flag of the Union has already surpassed in her heart the place which has so long been sacred to the 'Southern Cross.' "
--- General Wade Hampton

"I desire my children to be educated south of the Mason Dixon line and always to retain right of domicile in the Confederate States."
--- General J.E.B. Stuart, CSA

"Every man should endeavor to understand the meaning of subjugation before it is too late. It means the history of this heroic struggle will be written by the enemy that our youth will be trained by Northern schoolteachers will learn from Northern school books their version of the war will be impressed by the influences of history and education to regard our gallant dead as traitors, and our maimed veterans as fit objects for derision. It is said slavery is all we are fighting for, and if we give it up we give up all. Even if this were true, which we deny, slavery is not all our enemies are fighting for. It is merely the pretense to establish sectional superiority and a more centralized form of government, and to deprive us of our rights and liberties."
--- Maj. General Patrick R. Cleburne, CSA, January 1864, writing on what would happen if the Confederacy were to be defeated.

"If this cause, that is dear to my heart, is doomed to fail, I pray heaven may let me fall with it, while my face is toward the enemy and my arm battling for that which I know is right."
--- Major General Patrick R. Cleburne before his fatal wound at the battle of Franklin, Tennessee.

A relative of many prominent South Carolinians, States Rights Gist, named for his father's political beliefs, was a lawyer, a militia general in South Carolina, and a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. He rose rapidly to fame during the War for Southern Independence, having participated in battles at Chickamauga, Chattanooga and in the Atlanta Campaign. He was killed in the Battle of Franklin on 30 November 1864 while serving in the Army of Tennessee under John Bell Hood. States Rights Gist is buried in Trinity Episcopal churchyard, Columbia, South Carolina.

"I call upon my God to judge me, he knows that I love my friends and above all others my wife and children, the, oppinion of the world to contrary notwithstanding."
--- Brigadier General Stand Watie

“Our poor country has fallen a prey to the conqueror. The noblest cause ever defended by the sword is lost. The noble dead that sleep in their shallow though honored graves are far more fortunate than their survivors. I thought I had sounded the profoundest depth of human feeling, but this is the bitterest hour of my life."
--- Col. John Singleton Mosby, the Gray Ghost of the Confederacy

"I want by body taken up and laid in the dust around old Sweetwater and I want a tombstone put at my head with my name and my company and regiment, the day I enlisted and the name and date of the battles I have ever been in."
--- Sergeant Eli P. Landers, in a letter to home.


Forget, hell!
If you don't like my Rebel Flag, you can click here!

"Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness."

The Virginia Flaggers

Restoring the Honor to Our Confederate Flags and Ancestors

The League of the South

The League of the South is not a “neo-Confederate” or “Southern heritage” organization, although we certainly do honor our ancestors and our largely Christian historic inheritance as Southerners. The League is a present- and future-oriented Southern Nationalist organization that seeks the survival, well being, and independence of the Southern people. We stand for our Faith, Family, and Folk living in freedom and prosperity on the lands of our forefathers.

If this vision of a free, prosperous, and independent South appeals to you, please join us in our struggle.

War Crimes Against Southern Civilians

This is the untold story of the Union's "hard war" against the people of the Confederacy. Styled the "Black Flag" campaign, it was agreed to by Lincoln in a council with his generals in 1864. Cisco reveals the shelling and burning of cities, systematic destruction of entire districts, mass arrests, forced expulsions, wholesale plundering of personal property, and even murder of civilians. Carefully researched largely from primary sources, this examination also gives full attention to the suffering of Black victims of Federal brutality.

The Founders' Second Amendment:
Origins of the Right to Bear Arms

After the War for Southern Independence, many Confederate soldiers headed to the vast wilderness of the American West to escape the ravages of Reconstruction and to carve out new futures and fortunes for themselves and their families. Now you can step back into those roaring days of yesteryear in the Old Wild West. There is lots of historical info, photos and graphics of this most colorful era in American history at this site.

Fight like Forrest. NOT Sherman!

Over the weekend, one of the Anti-Confederate Bloggers took his campaign of hate against the Va Flaggers to a new low, when he made my private employment information public by posting it on the world wide web, then tweeting the information, along with false accusations, to my employer, anti-Confederate agitators in the Richmond area, and our local press.

Almost immediately, I was overwhelmed by the incredible show of support from friends, Flaggers, and folks I have never met, from both North and South of the Mason-Dixon Line. I cannot adequately express my appreciation for the encouragement, offers of assistance, and willingness to help.

Some of the offers came by way of wanting to repay him and other Anti-Confederate Bloggers in like kind, by posting their information and encouraging others to do the same. I want to take this opportunity to express that I am adamant in not wanting ANYONE in our movement to ever do such a thing. Disagreeing with someone is one thing, and we have every right (a duty, even) to defend our honor, but publishing information that could very possibly affect one’s livelihood, and therefore their ability to care for their families and fulfill their obligations, is not something I want to EVER be a part of.

Unlike our enemies, WE have truth, honor, and right on our side, and do not need to sink to unethical and immoral tactics in order to gain victory.

In my humble opinion, the best thing we can do to neutralize those who attack us with no provocation is to stay focused on our Cause and continue the good work that has been started. With every flag that is raised, returned to its rightful place of honor, or added to the landscape, we win a victory for the Confederate Veterans who fought and died under them…and when THEY are not the focus of our efforts, such efforts truly are in vain.

Our heritage is under attack in ways that even our parents and Grandparents could have never imagined. The time has come for Southerners to stand in defense of our Confederate ancestors and against those who would desecrate their honor and memory.

I have no doubt that victory will be ours, even in the midst of this latest assault. I may not know what lies ahead, and I am certain there will be many more such attempts to stop us, but I know one thing is for sure…I’m determined to stand, fight, and never back down. but I'm gonna fight like Forrest…NOT Sherman.

"You intended to harm me, but God intended it for good to accomplish what is now being done. " Genesis 50:20

I have recently returned to the UK from a holiday in Charleston and as a tourist to your country was interested in an article by Leah Rhyne in the Charleston City Paper on ‘Who is a Patriot?’ The opening statement stated that ‘It’s a loaded word, patriotism. A patriot to one county is often a terrorist to another.’

Leah states that she was ‘shocked’ at the selling of Confederate flags at USS Yorktown and the article articulates that the Confederate flag is a ‘symbol of lynch mobs and Jim Crow’. Would she not consider that if this is the case, it is because as a country you have this perception and you have lost, or ignored, the historical reason for the flag. It is a fact that many, if not all of the soldiers who fought under this flag counted themselves as patriots, as did their families.

Conversely, during this war it is a fact that many Northern soldiers were racist and in several cases ‘free states’ would not allow slaves that escaped their bonds to settle in Northern states. This was carried out under the ‘Stars and Stripes’ but I would assume that Leah still believes that the Union soldiers were patriots.

I am sure that Leah, like most Americans, are immensely proud of their history and proudly fly your national flag or wear its design on t-shirts. Does she feel that the selling of this flag at USS Yorktown is ok and patriotic when the same flag was flown by soldiers when driving Native Americans from their homes and corralling them in to reservations? Were these soldiers patriots and if not are you still happy to wear the flag that the soldiers fought under?

All countries have periods in their history where in hindsight actions they have taken have not been the correct one. My own country, England, has had its fair share of history where we have conquered other countries and forced our way of living on to the local population. I am still, however, proud of the flag that flies over my country but I understand that I have to learn from the mistakes we have made and not hide from them or allow racist organisations to ‘hijack’ my flag.

History you can’t change but what you can do is learn from it. If a large part of your country is proud of its history and wishes to fly a flag that represents to them pride in the men and women who gave their lives to what they believed to be a patriotic cause then they should be allowed to do so. This should be without it being automatically associated with racist organisations. If Leah sees the flag only as a racist symbol she is looking at it out of context and is stereotyping it instead of what it was intended for - to differentiate between two opposing forces on a battlefield for men and women who believed themselves to be patriots.

From a Yank with love

I know this is a bit out of the blue, but I happened upon the Confederate American Pride website while doing some Civil War related research, and I just wanted to let you know how much I liked it. I live in Up-State New York and have been a living historian for four years now, ever since I was fourteen. At first, I was always just attracted to the confederates for the look, the 'underdog factor,' etc.

Soon however, I began to get involved in progressive or 'hardcore' re-enacting, and the more I learend about the confederates and the more I portrayed rebel soldiers in the field, the more interested I became in the South in general, beyond the war years. My interest in the conflict and material culture of the Southern armies lead to an interest in the South before and after the war, and eventually, the South in general.

Anyhow, I just wanted to let you know how much I enjoyed the website, and the numerous and sponsored links along with it. My interest in the war has lead me to love the South, its culture, people, and cause. Sites like yours keep the spirit of the rebel soldier alive, and help keep the rich history and heritage of the South from disappearing. Without groups like Confederate American Pride, America would be that much worse off. Thank you for taking a stand in a world so hostile to the truth and for giving us all an example to follow. Let it be known that the South has friends in the North and that you are not alone! Although we are Yankee by birth, the South's message of freedom still rings true with us. Even in my few years on Earth, I can see that Confederate Nationalism has more support in the North than one may think. Not the majority of folks, but more than it may appear. Keep up the good fight!

With love from yer Northern friends,

BOOKS:
A Brief Bibliography of the
War for Southern Independence


Hits to this site
since 10 March 2001

SOUTHERN ORGANIZATIONS

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From 1861 until 1865, the Southern states of what we today call the United States of America existed as a sovereign nation known as the Confederate States of America. Because of differences in culture, economics and religion which the South felt were irreconsilable, they had seceded from their alliance with the Northern states. This was an act which, under the terms which they had ratified the Constitution, they had the right to do (they had in fact entered that union as sovereign states under contract with the other sovereign states and a federal entity known as the United States or federal government).

All would have been well and good had the federal government simply let the Southern states go their way. We had no hatred for the Northern people, we simply wanted to be left alone. But empires are not built through pacifism and so federal forces acting under the dictatorial authority of Abraham Lincoln invaded our homeland with a vehemance that was unprecedented in the history of mankind. In the single most costly war in American history brother was often times pitted against brother in a conflict that took more American lives than have all the wars that she has ever fought in combined.

Although we lost the War for Southern Independence, the cause for which we fought still lives on in the hearts of our fellow Southern patriots, or Southrons, as they are more properly termed. It will always live on so long as men desire to be free -- free to live their lives in the way they see fit without the constraints and infringments of government. Government without the consent of the people is tyranny and, as such, has no legitamacy (please refer to the quote at the top of this page entitled "Why We Fought the Civil War"). Patriots fought against tyranny in 1776 and they fought against it again in 1861. Man's desire to be free does not sleep nor will it die. It is an inalienable right granted by God and not by any governmental institution created by men.

The war ended in 1865 with the peace to which Robert E. Lee agreed, but the hostilities continue. It has been 138 years since the last shots of the War for Southern Independence were fired, but still, Yankee troops remain on our soil and their Washington based government continues to rule us with an iron hand. We are living under an occupational government. The Yankee Empire has replaced our constitutional form of government with a bureaucracy, backed by a non-elected judiciary of unprecedented power. Its open-door policy on illegal aliens is daily destroying our unique Southern culture with government-enforced multiculturism and "political correctness." This same wave of politcal correctness has incited the removal of many of our monuments and memorials from public display. The removal of still others is a constant threat. Even our cherished banners--symbols of Southern Pride--have been banned from public display and from schools in many areas of our beloved Southland. I can remember a time when the playing of "Dixie" at a school football game would bring the crowd to its feet with wildly exuberant cheers and Rebel Yells. Now it too has been banned from school grounds and alumni events, right along with prayer.

Even though we lost the War for Southern Independence, the cause for which we fought has not been lost. It still lives on in the spirit of the Southern people. This spirit, undaunted by reconstruction and guided by the hand of God, like the phoenix which rose from the ashes, will lead Southrons to build a new South that will rise in prominence among the nations of the world.

More than 120,000 copies in print! The South Was Right! By James Ronald Kennedy and Walter Donald Kennedy. History is written by the victor, and that of the American Civil War is no different. The idea that Southerners would die in order for only 6 percent of the population to own slaves just does not pass the "sniff" test. The myth of a freedom-loving North and an evil, slave-holding South is just one that is exposed in The South Was Right! The idea of big government not only was politicized through the issue of slavery but also was made inevitable in the South's defeat. Because of the surrender, "we the people" of the United States are no longer sovereign. Today, a supreme federal government dictates what rights the states can exercise. After the Union victory, a campaign of ongoing cultural cleansing has been waged to keep the South in its assigned place in American history. While many ethnic, religious, and cultural groups are celebrated, Southern heritage often is viewed with a wary eye. Predicted to be "one of the most controversial books of the decade" when first published, The South Was Right! lives up to that forecast. This book is filled with documented evidence supporting all of the authors' claims and paints a frighteningly realistic picture of a captured people, their struggle to preserve their heritage, and their right to exist as a distinct culture and an independent country.

This is a must have book for every Southern patriot's library.

What Did the Rebel Yell Sound Like?
In this exclusive clip from the 1930s, Confederate veterans step up to the mic and let out their version of the fearsome rallying cry.

150th Confederate States Of America Commemoration, 2/19/11
NOTE: If you can overlook the NAACP bias of the coverage, this video has a lot of good footage from the event.


Robert E. Lee has been nearly deified by the Lost Cause

155 years after the American Civil War ended, repeatedly debunked myths about its causes and execution, and the motivations of the men involved, remain frustratingly prevalent. Encyclopedia Virginia says most of these myths can be attributed to the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, a collection of nonsensical negationist lies and out of context half-truths cooked up by former Confederates themselves after the war.

Proponents of the Lost Cause continue to argue the war was about state's rights, not slavery, that the Confederacy outfought the North but ran out of men, that all the good Christians were Southerners, and that Robert E. Lee was a fearless, brilliant, morally blemish-free leader. Historians and educators have been pulling their hair out for over a century combating this nonsense, constantly being forced to remind us that documents disproving the pillars of the Lost Cause exist in abundance, and the Confederacy wasn't a noble, Christian rebellion fighting for freedom against godless Northern hordes so much as it was an idiotic failed state run by and for treasonous, slave-owning whip crackers.

Yet the myths remain. The lies persist. The South lost the war itself, but the North slacked off, failing to properly support Black Americans after the smoke cleared and allowing public discourse to be poisoned with pro-South propaganda for decades. As a result, the battle over the truth and legacy of one of America's defining chapters rages on in schools and dining rooms across the country.


Watch the video: Remembering Robert E. Lee 2014 with Dr. Christian B. Keller, Robert E. Lee, Great Captain