Messerschmitt Bf 109E 'Emil'

Messerschmitt Bf 109E 'Emil'


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Messerschmitt Bf 109E 'Emil'

Introduction

The Bf 109E was the standard Luftwaffe fighter at the start of the Second World War. It was the only single engined Luftwaffe fighter in use during the Battle of Britain, where it proved to be the equal of the Spitfire, and superior to the Hurricane. Like all early versions of the 109, it was relatively short lived, being replaced by the 109F in 1941.

The 109E was the first version of the fighter to be based around the Daimler Benz 601 engine, giving it significantly superior performance to the earlier Jumo 210 powered machines. Its top speed rose by 60 miles per hour, its service ceiling by nearly 5000 feet! The DB 601 engine used direct fuel injection instead of a carbouretter, meaning that it performed much better under negative G than the Spitfire or Hurricane, or than earlier models of the 109 (apart from the 109C, which has a similarly designed Jumo 210G engine).

Work on the 109E began in the summer of 1938. The first prototype of the new variant, the 109V-14, flew then. It was powered by the DB 601A engine, and armed with two nose-mounted MG 17s and two wing mounted MG/FF cannon. A second prototype, the V-15, soon followed, this time armed with a single nose-mounted cannon.

Production of the Bf 109E-1 was delayed by problems with the DB601 engine. The pre-production E-0s were ready by December 1938, by which point complete 109E-1 airframes were being made. However the engine did not appear until the spring of 1939. This partly explains the sudden rapid appearance of the 109E in Luftwaffe service over the summer of 1939 – all that was left to do was fit the engine to the aircraft. 850 Bf 109E-1s were delivered in the first eight months of 1939, in time for the outbreak of war.

Work began on the 109F in the spring of 1940, just as the early E-1s were finally coming off the production line. The first 109Fs began to join their units in March-April 1941. The summer of 1941 also saw the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 enter Luftwaffe service, ending the 109’s reign as the only single-seat fighter in the Luftwaffe. Despite this short service career, it was the 109E that took part in most of the most significant air battles of the war in Europe.

Variants

Bf 109E-0

This was the pre-production variant and was identical to the E-1.

E-1:

The first production model of the Bf 109E. The E-1 started off with four MG-17 machine guns, two over the engine cowling and two in the wings, and a DB 601A engine. Production began at the start of 1939 when the engine became available.

Some sources suggest that later Bf 109E-1s had the wing guns replaced by two MG/FF cannon. However, the cannon equipped fighters can be easily identified in pictures – the larger cannon needed a small bulge to be added under the wings and the barrel of the cannon protrudes from the front of the wing.

Bf 109E-1/B

A fighter-bomber version of the E-1. The Bf 109 E-1/B was a dive bomber, capable of carrying either four 50-kilo/ 110 pound bombs or one 250-kilo/ 550 pound bomb (some sources suggest it could only carry the larger bomb). The bomb was aimed using the standard gun sight. Accuracy was poor. One Staffel in each Jagdgeschwader was equipped with the jabo version during the Battle of Britian.

E-2

The Bf-109 E-2 was a short lived attempt to mount a single MG/FF cannon inside the engine, firing through the propeller hub. It also had two MG 17 machines guns. This design was not a success – the engine mounted cannon caused too many problems – and it did not enter mass production.

Bf 109E-3:

The E-3 was the second main variant of the 109E. It appeared towards the end of 1939. It had an MG FF/M cannon firing through the airscrew hub, and mounted inside the engine. The engine was also changed to the DB 601Aa, providing another 76 hp of power. The extra cannon was not popular with the pilots, and was often removed once the aircraft reached front line units. Its position inside the engine had produced massive vibration, which caused the gun to be inaccurate and jam. Most E-3 models had the machine guns in the wing replaced by 20-mm MG FF cannons, giving this model much greater firepower than the E-1, even without the engine mounted gun.

Bf 109E-4:

The E-4 saw the engine mounted cannon finally abandoned. The wing mounted cannons were upgraded to the MG FF/M, which gave a higher rate of fire. The cockpit canopy was also modified. It first appeared in July 1940, and played a significant role in the Battle of Britain. German figures for fighter losses show 249 E-1s, 32 E-3s and 344 E-4s lost in the second half of 1940. It would have been relatively easy to upgrade a 109E-3 to the E-4 specifications, and this is what may have happened to many of the older fighter.

Bf 108E-4/B “Jabo”

The fighter-bomber variant of the E-4, first used against shipping in the Channel during July 1940. It could carry one 250kg or four 50kg bombs. It was not popular amongst pilots, but one Staffel in each Jagdgeschwader was converted to the E-4/B.

Bf 109E-4/N

Similar to the standard E-4, but with a DB 601N engine. This engine provided slightly increased horsepower, and could be boasted to 1270 h.p. for one minute to provide extra power in emergencies.

Bf 109E-4/Trop

A version equipped with special tropical equipment, designed for use in the desert. Trop versions had sand filters for the engines.

Bf 109E-5:

A reconnaissance fighter, identical to the E-4, but with the wing mounted cannons removed and a RB 21/19 camera mounted in the fuselage. This was a great improvement on the E-6.

Bf 109E-6:

A reconnaissance fighter made by adding the DB 601N engine to an E-3 airframe, equipped with the four MG-17s of the E-1. Photographs were taken with a hand-held camera. Something of a stop-gap as a reconnaissance aircraft.

Bf 108E-7:

The E-7 was a long range fighter derived from the E-4/N. Like that aircraft it had the DB 601N engine, two MG-17 machine guns in the engine cowling and two MG/FF cannon in the wings. However, it also had attachments for a 300 litre drop tank, giving it a significantly extended range. The same attachments could also be used to fit a SC 250 bomb rack, allowing the E-7 to carry a single 250 kg bomb.

E-7/U2:

The E-7/U2 was designed for low-level ground attack work. It had a larger oil cooler, and improved engine armour to protect it against enemy fire when operating at lower level.

E-7/Z

The E-7/Z was an E-7 equipped with a GM-1 nitrous oxide injection system that could provide increased power for a short period.

E-8

This appears to have been a long range conversion of the original E-1 model, still equipped with the DB 610A engine and four MG-17 machines guns, but with the added ability to take the same 300 litre drop tank as the E-7.

E-9

A reconnaissance version of the E-7, with the same DB 601N engine and a Rb 50/30 automatic camera mounted in the fuselage. As such it was armed with the standard combination of two MG-17 machine guns and two MG/FF cannon in the wings.

Bf 109 T-0

The German Navy intermittently experimented with an aircraft carrier. More progress was made on aircraft for this vessel, the Graf Zepplin than on the ship itself, which was never completed. Ten T-0s (T for Trager or Carrier) were made by converted E-3s. They were given catapult spools and arrestor hocks to equip them for carrier work. Their wing span was increased by 42.5 inches (102 cm). Other changes were made to decrease the distance they needed to take off and land.

Bf 109 T-1

The T-1 was the production version of the 109T. Sixty of them were built before the carrier programme was cancelled.

Bf 109 T-2

With the cancellation of the Graf Zepplin, the sixty T-1s were no longer needed. Accordingly, they had their catapult spools and arrestor hocks removed and were re-designated as the T-2. They were given to I./JG77 for use from small airfields, where their short take off and landing ability would be useful.

Combat record

Spain

A total of 45 Bf-109Es were sent to join the Legion Condor in Spain. However, although they arrived well before the end of the Spanish Civil War, by the time they reached Spain, the Republican air force had been almost entirely eliminated. The 109E saw very little active combat in Spain.

Poland

There were roughly 850 E-1s on the Luftwaffe’s first line strength at the start of the war, along with a small number of older models. Of those, about 200 were involved in the attack on Poland in September 1939. The Polish air force was small and its aircraft obsolete. The Luftwaffe won an easy victory but not one from which it could learn any lessons for the battles to come.

France and the Low Countries

Although the French air force was much more modern than the Polish, its fighters were not up to the standard of the Bf 109E. The same was true of the R.A.F. Hurricanes that were sent over the France between 1939 and the German invasion. The much superior Spitfire was only just coming into front line service in Britain, and could not be risked in France. The Luftwaffe was able to field nearly 1,000 Bf 109s for the invasion of the west, the largest number available at the start of any campaign.

When the German invasion began, the Luftwaffe quickly dominated the skies. French and British squadrons were able to win temporary control of small areas, but the rapid progress of the German advance meant that the allies repeatedly had to abandon their air fields. More Allied fighters were lost to ground attack, or abandoned in the face of the German army than were shot down by the 109E. Nevertheless, the Luftwaffe pilots had no reason to believe that the time of easy victories was over until they reached Dunkirk. Here for the first time the Bf 109 came up against small numbers of Spitfires, based in southern England. In these first clashes between the two aircraft there was no clear winner, but the Luftwaffe was unable to dominate the air over the Dunkirk beaches. This was their first tactical failure. Bomber losses over Dunkirk were unexpectedly heavy.

Battle of Britain

The 109E was the only single engined fighter used by the Luftwaffe during the battle of Britain. The fighting in France had taken its toll of the 109 – only 800 were available at the start of the Battle of Britain, and of those nearly 200 were under repair. Over Britain the 109E outclassed the Hurricane, just as it had in France, but now came up against the Spitfire in large numbers for the first time. The two fighters were incredibly evenly matched as aircraft. Fortunately for the R.A.F., the 109 was operating under several disadvantages over southern England. London was at the absolute edge of its operational range (it could spend no more than 20 minutes over the city), while any drawn out fight over southern England would lead to a nervous flight back across the Channel watching the fuel gauge. Every 109 lost over Britain meant the loss of a pilot, while many Spitfire and Hurricane pilots were able to bail out of damaged aircraft and soon be back in the air again (the R.A.F. would soon be suffering from similar problems over France). Finally, the 109 was forced to act as a close escort to the bomber fleet. It had been expected that the Bf 110 would be able to perform this duty, leaving the 109 free to range around the battle zone. Instead, the Bf 110 turned out to be nearly as vulnerable as the bombers it was meant to be guarding, forcing the 109 into a role for which it was poorly suited. To balance this, the British fighters often concentrated against the German bombers, leaving them vulnerable to surprise attack. During the Battle of Britain the Bf 109 shot down 219 Spitfires and 272 Hurricanes. The Spitfire claimed 180 109s, the Hurricane only 153. However, in the battle as a whole the R.A.F. shot down twice as many aircraft as they lost. In the skis over Britain the Luftwaffe, and the 109, met their first defeat.

Barbarossa

By the middle of 1941 the 109E was becoming outdated. The 109F had replaced it on the production lines, but the 109E still made up nearly one third of the 440 Bf 109s allocated to the attack on Russia. It was still perfectly capable of dealing with the generally quite poor fighters encountered early in the campaign. However, by the end of 1941 most fighter units had been reequipped with the 109F. It is worthy of notice that far fewer 109s were available for the attack on Russia than had been used in any of the previous German campaigns. This demonstrates well the dangers of fighting a war on two fronts – a large number of the best German fighters had to be kept in the west to defend against the R.A.F.

Stats

E-3

Stat,

In Action

Engine,

Aa

Hp,

1175 at takeoff
1000 at 12,140 feet

Span

32 ft 4.5 inch/ 9.86m

Length

28 ft 4.5 inch/ 8.64m

Speed, fully loaded

290 mph at sea level
307 mph at 3,280ft
322 mph at 6,560ft
348 mph at 14,560ft
336 mph at 19,685ft
Cruising speed 300 mph at 13,120 ft

Range

410 miles

Rate of climb

3280ft/min 17.83 m/sec

Ceiling

34450 ft/ 10500 meters

The 109E-3 reached its maximum speed at 12,000 feet, where it could reach 354 mph or 570 k/ph. The Spitfire I was slower at this height, but could match or possibly beat this speed at 19,000 feet. As the attacking force, the Germans were largely able to control at what height the battles between these two aircraft occurred, giving the Bf 109E a slight speed advantage.


Messerschmitt Bf 109E 'Emil' - History

Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-4
Weekend Edition

Eduard , 1/48 scale

Eduard Kit No.84166 Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-4 Weekend Edition

156 parts in grey plastic (including 8 clear parts). Decal sheet for one option.

Highly detailed, crisply moulded replica of a classic fighter at a welcome price for budget-conscious modellers without any sacrifice in product quality.

A nice continuation of the Eduard Bf 109 series and a beautifully rendered replica for under $USD 25. Highly recommended.

Background

The Bf109 is probably the best known and most discussed aircraft subject on HyperScale so let&rsquos pass on the history lesson of the 109 and get to the plastic.

Eduard&rsquos 1/48th Bf 109E series has rightly earned accolades for its fidelity to detail and Brett Green in his review of the Bf 109E-1 in February 2012 summarised Eduard&rsquos new Emil family as &ldquoThe best Messerschmitt Bf 109 E in 1/48 scale.&rdquo

His review of the Bf 109E-4 Profipack last year offers a good picture of the quality of the styrene parts: http://www.hyperscale.com/2012/reviews/kits/eduardr0007reviewbg_1.htm

FirstLook

The plastic-only Weekend Edition follows Eduard&rsquos philosophy with these follow-on repackages. There is no compromise in quality- all the good styrene parts from the Profipack are there, just minus the &ldquofrills&rdquo and with a single decal option.

The kit parts come well protected with the four grey sprues packed in two clear cellophane bags while the 8 clear parts are in a separate zip lock bag.

The single decal option is perhaps a little predictable but nevertheless important- W.Nr. 5819 of Obstlt. Adolf Galland, Geschwaderkommodore JG 26, Audembert, France &ndash Dec.1940. Basically you can&rsquot go wrong with an Adolf Galland marking option and the price of this kit gives the buyer a high quality &ldquocanvas&rdquo to use any of the multitudes of Bf 109E-4 aftermarket decals on the market.

Incidentally, the marking option offered was also one of the five options of the Profipack release, two of those including machines flown by Helmut Wick and Franz Von Werra.

More than 33,000 Bf 109s were produced of which around 560 were E-4 variants which featured prominently in the Battle of Britain. Adolf Galland&rsquos 109E-4 is a well known machine and the Eduard kit also contains parts to make his specific airframe, notably the front canopy with the protruding telescope Galland used. Alternate parts in the kit allow for other schemes of the modeller&rsquos choice using aftermarket decals.

Conclusion

There is a lot to like about Eduard&rsquos Weekend Edition kits. The Bf109E-4 is a good example of Eduard&rsquos marketing philosophy for its Weekend range &ndash a budget-priced version of a mainstream subject with the frills removed but no compromise in basic quality.

The Bf 109E-4 Weekend provides a very high level of detail including a detailed engine to display the model with cowls off, or an option to close everything up (and have a nice DB engine for the spares box for another 109 project!). The surface detail is, of course, the same quality as the more expensive boxings.

The surface detail of parts is all you could hope for and Eduard&rsquos gradual progression through all of the major Emil variants is giving us, without doubt, the best 1/48th scale Bf 109s on the market.

The Bf 109E-4 Weekend Edition is thus highly recommended as top quality at a bargain price.


Video: 75 year old Messerschmitt BF109 E4 flys again - YouTub

Bf 109 aircraft Britannic

  • Search. Messerschmitt Bf109E-3 ( Me 109E ). Home. Our collections. Related objects. Messerschmitt Bf109E-3 ( Me 109E ). Vehicles, aircraft and ships
  • Bf 109, in full Bayerische Flugzeugwerke 109, also called Me 109, Nazi Germany’s most important fighter aircraft, both in operational importance and in numbers produced. It was commonly referred to as the Me 109 after its designer, Willy Messerschmitt.
  • Yes in the heat of the moment anything could happen. There are some interesting photos of USAAF bombers that were forced to land in Switzerland in Swiss markings

Swiss Air Force Centre: Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3 - Aces Flying Hig

  1. Bf 109E-1. German WWII fighter. 1:48 scale plastic kit. The disappearance of the Bf 109 from the skies over Europe was not spelled out by the end of the war
  2. Skids or tricycle retractable. Mass group. 2. Twin engined utility and corporate helicopter. About 80 were produced between 1976 and 1980. Edit. A109, vicinity London Heliport London UK, 2013 (On 16 January 2013, an Augusta 109E helicopter positioning by day on an implied..
  3. nora77466. 0.3*108+2.3*109=32.4+250.7=283.1. 3.8. 4 оценки
  4. E-109 Kappa is a character who appears in the Sonic the Hedgehog comic series and its spin-offs published by Archie Comics. It is the tenth unit in the E-100 Series robot group created by Dr. Ivo Eggman Robotnik

B109E - Ross-Tech Wik

  1. RFM A109E. This publication contains information proprietary to the Agusta Company. Reproduction and/or resale of the information or illustrations contained herein is not permitted without the written..
  2. Includes new paint and interior
  3. For some reason the Swiss AF took down the link to the document by Hugo Freudiger – it was a good overview. Wish I had kept a copy!

The Kit

Amodel’s kit of the Bf 109 Emil is injection molded in grey and consists of 46 parts, including a one-piece clear plastic canopy. The kit has engraved panel lines and a small amount of flash on most of the parts, requiring clean-up with a sharp blade or a sanding stick. The cockpit is basic with a seat, control yoke, and instrument panel (having no raised detail and no decal to supplant it). There is a choice of spinners and the wing-mounted machine guns are molded as a single piece with the upper half of each wing, a drawback as parts so molded are more easily damaged during construction or, as is the case with this kit, shipping. The engraved surface detail is thorough and impressive, certain to add a degree of realism to the completed kit. There is a choice of centerline stores for the belly: either a drop tank, a single large bomb, or a bomb pallette with four smaller bombs.

The kit is devoid of locator pins to assist assembly, and the plastic seems a bit soft. These factors may or may not affect the fit, but should be taken into account for modelers uncomfortable with the prospect of extensive puttying and sanding. The most attractive feature of the kit may be the great variety of markings, including not merely standard Luftwaffe and Condor Legion versions, but also markings for a Messerschmitt sold to the Japanese for evaluation, and another machine that was shot down in Spain by Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War and subsequently carted off to France, where it ultimately flew again under French colors. There are Swiss, Yugoslavian and Romanian markings as well.


Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-4 “Emil”

Originally designed in the early 1930’s, the Messerschmitt Bf 109 first saw action during the Spanish Civil War. By the break of World War II, it had become the primary fighter plane of the German Luftwaffe and accounted for 57% of all German produced fighters. Modifications to the design that continued production until April of 1945, allowed the Messerschmitt to remain competitive with the latest Allied fighters throughout the conflict. With a total production of 33,984 units, the Bf 109 goes down in history as the most produced fighter aircraft of all time. The “E” variant of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 was introduced in late 1938. A notable revision from previous versions was a squared-off canopy, which gave greater visibility to the pilot and was easier to produce. Of the many variants, the Bf 109 E-4 showcased in this scale model aircraft, as well as the E-1 experienced most of the action during the Battle of Britain. A total of 339 E-4’s reported for duty during this conflict and were responsible for escorting bombers from bases located in the Netherlands, Germany and northern France.

A renowned group of aces piloted the Messerschmitt, 105 of which were credited with 100 or more victories. From this group, thirteen pilots totalled more than 200 victories, while Gerhard Barkhorn and Erich Hartmann have astounding victory tallies of 301 and 352 respectively. Needless to say, the Messerschmitt Bf 109 is credited with more aerial victories than any other aircraft. Adolf Galland flew this machine during the Battle of Britain, where he was originally assigned as Gruppenkommandeur of fighter wing III/JG26 based in Pas de Calais, France. By this time, Galland had already achieved the ace status, having accumulated 14 victories in the previous French campaign. The particulars of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-4, referenced in this scale model aircraft (W.Nr.5819), belong to the plane he flew between September 1940 and April 1941. During the intense combat of this period, aerial victories, promotions, and decorations came rapidly for Adolf Galland. By November of 1940 he had already recorded his 50th victory against a Spitfire, a tally that amounted to 104 by the end of World War II.

Adolf Galland may have been one of the most charismatic German pilots. Amidst the controversy, his machine (W.Nr.5819) was equipped with a cigar holder and lighter. As depicted in the scale model aircraft photos below, the fuselage was painted with his personal insignia, a Mickey Mouse cartoon smoking a cigar and holding a hatchet. An insignia used since his early flying days during the Spanish Civil War. Note that the particulars of this scale model aircraft do not include the telescope on Gallands windscreen, as this feature was installed after September of 1940. On a more civilized level, when his JG26 squadron captured British ace pilot Douglas Bader, a double amputee who lost both his artificial legs in the ordeal, Galland arranged for an RAF aircraft to safely fly over France and airdrop a spare set of wooden legs. The two went on to become lifelong friends.

For this project, I used Hasegawa’s 1/32 scale model aircraft of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-4 that carried markings for Adolf Galland’s legendary plane. I also used several aftermarket parts which included a resin cockpit, landing gear, machine guns, interior and exterior photo-etch parts. Enjoy the photos.


Messerschmitt Bf 109E 'Emil' - History

Constructed as a Bf-109E-4 by Erla Maschinenwerk at Leipzig.

Taken on Strength/Charge with the Luftwaffe with s/n GH+DX.

Transferred to 2./JG51.
Operated with markings: black 12

Ferry flight.
Flown from Leipzig-Mockau to Jena-Rotzen.

Flown from Koln-Ostheim to Pihen.

Converted to a Bf-109E-4/B.
Subsequently modified in the field as a Fighter-Bomber to carry a 250kg (551 lb) bomb, and served briefly with 6/JG52.

Transferred to 2/JG51, Wissant.

Crashed.
Forced landing with gear up at Manston, Kent. Shot down by a Spitfire from No 66 Squadron.

Transported by ground. Delivered to RAF Hucknall.
Sent to Hucknall for repair and flight testing / evaulation.

Made airworthy using components from a number of downed Bf-109s. The tail came from werke-number 6313. The top cowling came from 1653. The rear top cowling came from 4010. The starboard wing came from 1418. The port wing was built by Fiesler, but no identification was found. The propeller was replaced and a RAF oxygen system was installed.

Taken on Strength/Charge with the Royal Air Force with s/n DG200.

Transferred to DGRD, RAF Hucknall.

First flight.
First post-rebuild flight.

Taken on Strength/Charge with the Royal Air Force with s/n DG200.

Transferred to de Havilland, Hatfield.
Sent to Hatfield for testing of the variable pitch propeller installation.

From Circa February 1942 to 2001

To A and AEE, Boscombe Down.

Transferred to No 1426 Enemy Aircraft Flight, Duxford.
An attempt was made at a ferry flight from Boscombe Down to Duxford but returned to Boscombe Down with a hydraulic failure.

Transported by ground.
Moved from Boscombe Down to Duxford. Flown extensively by No 1426 as a demonstrator in familiarisation exercises.

Engine changed out with one from Bf-110C-5 RAF AX772.

Transferred to No 1426 Enemy Aircraft Flight, RAF Collyweston.

Assigned to No 16 MU, Stafford for storage.

Transferred to Air Historical Branch.

Assigned to Air Historical Branch, No 52 MU, Cardiff for storage.

Assigned to Air Historical Branch, German Air Force Equipment Centre, RAF Stanmore for storage.

Assigned to Air Historical Branch, No 15 MU, Wroughton, Wilts for storage.

Transferred to Air Historical Branch, RAF Fulbeck, Lincs.

To Air Historical Branch, RAF Biggin Hill.
Assembled for display.

Transported by air. Delivered to Air Historical Branch, RAF Chivenor.
Dismantled and moved from Biggin Hill to RAF Chivenor for display.

Transported by ground. Delivered to Air Historical Branch, RAF Saint Athan, South Wales.
Moved from Chivenor to RAF Saint Athan, South Wales for display.

Markings Applied: black 12
Refurbished while at Saint Athan.

New serial number assigned: 8477M RAF


Photographer: Peter Nicholson
Notes: Bf-109E of the RAF Museum known as Black 12 on display at the 1978 Biggin Hill Air Fair.


Photographer: Peter Nicholson
Notes: Another view of the Bf-109E of the RAF Museum known as Black 12 on display at the 1978 Biggin Hill Air Fair.

Loaned to RAF Museum, Hendon.


Photographer: Peter Nicholson
Notes: Bf-109E of the RAF Museum known as Black 12 as displayed there in the Summer of 1983.

To Ministry of Defense.
Officially transferred to the MoD, but remained on display at Hendon.

To RAF Museum, Grahame Park Way, Hendon, London, England.
Formally donated to the RAF Museum by the MoD.
View the Location Dossier


Photographer: Andy West


Photographer: Terry Fletcher
Notes: Messerschmitt BF109 E-3 is part of the Battle of Britain Aircraft Collection at the RAF Hendon Museum


Photographer: Arjun Sarup
Notes: Displayed in the RAF Museum wearing the emblem of 1./JG 51.


Messerschmitt Bf 109E 'Emil' - History

Constructed as a Bf-109E-3 by Erla Maschinenwerk at Leipzig.

Transferred to (J)./LG2.
Operated with markings: white 14

Crashed.
During the Battle of Britain, damaged by a Spitfire over Sheerness, belly landing at Calais-Marck.

Converted to a Bf-109E-7.
Rebuilt as an E-7.

Transferred to 4./JG5.
Operated with markings: white 7
Transferred to the eastern front when returned to service.

Crashed.
Crash landing at Pya Ozero, Russia.

To Charleston Aviation Services, Colchester.

Removed from a marsh in Russia. The fuselage was damaged during the recovery.

To Museum of Flying/David G. Price, Santa Monica, CA.

Restoration started.
Restored to flying condition in Colchester, Essex, UK. Parts from w/n 1342 were used in the restoration.

From 13 August 1998 to By 1998

To Museum of Flying/Supermarine of California Ltd, Santa Monica, CA with c/r N81562.

To Supermarine of California Ltd, Santa Monica, CA.

Transported by air.
Moved from Heathrow to Chino, CA.

Restoration completed.
Markings Applied: white 14
Restoration of the airframe was completed with the installation of a DB601A engine.

Certificate of airworthiness for N81562 (BF 109E, 3579) issued.

First post-restoration Flight.
Flown at Chino, CA.

Ferry flight. Delivered to Museum of Flying, Santa Monica Municipal Airport, Los Angeles, CA.
Moved from Chino, CA to Santa Monica, CA.
View the Location Dossier

Loaned to Commemorative Air Force, Camarillo, CA.

Ferry flight.
Moved from Santa Monica to Camarillo, CA.

To Ed Russell, Niagara Falls, ON.

Ferry flight. Delivered to Russell Aviation Group, Niagara Falls, ON.
Moved from Camarillo, CA to Niagara Falls, ON.
View the Location Dossier

Civil registration, N81562, cancelled.
Exported to Canada.

Certificate of airworthiness for CF-EML (BF109E 4, 3579) issued.

To 1624772 Ontario Inc/Ed Russell, Niagara Falls, ON with c/r CF-EML.


Photographer: Mike Henniger
Notes: Displayed at the Friendly Foes Over the Falls at Russell Group home base, Niagara Falls.


Photographer: Mike Henniger


Photographer: Mike Henniger

Collided with a flag pole on take off. The leading edge of the port wing was damaged between the guns and the slats. It landed safely.


Photographer: Rob Harvan
Notes: Taken June 14, 2014, at Biggin Hill Heritage Hanger. Engine had not yet been received.

Reported as sold to a new owner in the UK.

Certificate of airworthiness for G-CIPB (MESSERSCHMITT BF 109E-4, 3579) issued.

To Biggin Hill Heritage Hangar Ltd, Biggin Hill Airport, Biggin Hill, Westerham with c/r G-CIPB.


Messerschmitt Bf 109E “Emil”

Apart from its combat record, the Bf 109 remains a historic aircraft for sheer numbers produced. More than seven decades after WWII, only the Ilyushin Il-2 Sturmovik exceeds the Messerschmitt’s total of 34,000 produced, even under the pressure of continual Allied bombing. Nothing else comes close. Frequently, the Soviet Yakovlev fighter series is compared to the 109, but that requires four types of Yaks.

From design initiation to first flight required merely 14 months, culminating in the initial demonstration in May 1934. That was 18 months before the Hawker Hurricane, giving Messerschmitt a valuable developmental edge. The subsequent number of variants was enormous, spread across the entire production run from four prewar models through the E, F, G, and K series.

In a combat career lasting from 1937 to 1945, the Messerschmitt 109 fought from Spain to Africa to Norway to Russia. Armament varied considerably, from rifle-caliber machine guns in early models to 20 and 30m cannon during the war years.
Though possessing speed, performance, and considerable “stretch,” the 109’s enduring limitation was range. From bases in northern France it had only about 20 minutes over southern England, and not even drop tanks fully redressed the original concept of a tactical support fighter.
Bf 109s were flown by nearly every Western air force affiliated with Germany, including Italy, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia, plus Finland and Switzerland.
The total production of 34,000 aircraft, included limited postwar construction in Czechoslovakia and Spain. Ironically, the Messerschmitt’s last combat was with the fledgling Israeli Air Force in 1948 often combating Egyptian Spitfires.

Today the huge majority of airworthy Messerschmitts are Spanish derivatives, some modified with Daimler-Benz engines. Two flying Emils are operated by the Flying Heritage Collection near Seattle and “White 14” recently sold by the Russell Group in Canada.


[edit] Contest history

During 1933, the Technisches Amt (T-Amt), the technical department of the RLM, concluded a series of research projects into the future of air combat. The result of the studies was four broad outlines for future aircraft:

  • Rüstungsflugzeug I for a multi-place medium bomber
  • Rüstungsflugzeug II for a tactical bomber
  • Rüstungsflugzeug III for a two-seat heavy fighter
  • Rüstungsflugzeug IV for a single-seat fighter

Rüstungsflugzeug IV was intended to be an interceptor, replacing the Arado Ar 64 and Heinkel He 51 biplanes then in service. While it was intended the R-IV aircraft would best all others then flying, the requirements were nevertheless not terribly hard to meet.

The fighter needed to have a top speed of 400 km/h (250 mph) at 6,000 m (19,685 ft) which it could maintain for 20 minutes, while staying in the air for a total of 90 minutes. It was to be powered by the new Junkers Jumo 210 engine of about 522 kW (700 hp). It was to be armed with either a single high-performance 20 mm MG C 30 cannon firing through the engine shaft, or alternatively either two engine cowl-mounted 7.92 mm MG 17 machine guns, or one lightweight, engine mounted 20 mm MG FF cannon plus two 7.92 mm MG 17s. [ 9 ] One other specification was that the aircraft needed to keep wing loading below 100 kg/m². The priorities for the fighter design were level speed, climb speed, and manoeuvrability, in that order.

In fact the R-IV specifications were not actually devised by the T-Amt at all. In early 1933, both Heinkel and Arado had sent in privately-funded designs for a monoplane fighter, and the T-Amt simply collected the best features from both and sent them back out again, adding Focke-Wulf to the tender. In May 1934, the R-IV request was distributed to the tendering companies and made official. Each was asked to deliver three prototypes to be delivered for head-to-head testing in late 1934.

Willy Messerschmitt was originally not invited to participate in the competition. This was mainly due to personal animosity between Messerschmitt and RLM director Erhard Milch (Hans Hackman, a close friend of Milch, was killed testing the prototype Messerschmitt M20 light transport aircraft), after the M20 proved a disaster in Lufthansa use. Nevertheless, Messerschmitt was on very good terms with many high ranking Luftwaffe officers based on the success of the Messerschmitt Bf 108 Taifun sports plane. After a delay of several months, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (literally Bavarian Aircraft Factory) for which Messerschmitt was head designer, was invited to take part in early 1935, although Milch let it be known they would never win the contract. [citation needed]

[edit] Prototypes

The first prototype (Versuchsflugzeug 1 or V1), with the civilian registration D-IABI, was completed by May 1935, but the German engines were not yet ready. In order to get the designs into the air, the RLM acquired four Rolls-Royce Kestrel VI engines by trading Rolls-Royce a Heinkel He 70 Blitz as an engine test-bed. [ 10 ] Messerschmitt received two of these engines and started adapting the engine mounts of V1 to take the inverted Vee-12 engine. This work was completed in August, and V1 completed flight tests in September 1935. The aircraft was then sent to the Luftwaffe Test Center at Rechlin to take part in the design contest.

By the late summer, the Jumo engines were starting to become available, and V2 was completed with the 449 kW (602 hp) Jumo 210A in October 1935. V3 followed, being the first to actually mount guns, but another Jumo 210 was not available and it ended up delaying the flight of V3 until May 1936. Like V1, V2 and V3 were sent to Rechlin after acceptance tests at the factory. [citation needed]

The flight data of these three aircraft were very nearly identical. The maximum airspeed was about 470 km/h (294 mph) at 4,000 m (13,123 ft) altitude, and the service ceiling was about 8,300 m (27,231 ft). [citation needed]

[edit] The contest

After Luftwaffe acceptance trials were completed at Rechlin, the prototypes were moved to Travemünde for the head-to-head portion of the contest. The aircraft which participated in the trials were the Arado Ar 80 V3, the Focke-Wulf Fw 159 V3, the Heinkel He 112 V4 and the Bf 109 V2. The He 112 arrived first, in early February 1936, and the rest of the prototypes had all arrived by the beginning of March.

Because most of the fighter pilots of the Luftwaffe were used to biplanes with open cockpits, low wing-loading, light g-forces and easy handling, they were very critical about the Bf 109 at first. However, it was soon one of the front-runners in the contest, as the Arado and Focke-Wulf entries, which were intended as "back-up" programmes to safeguard against failure of the two favourites, proved to be completely outclassed. The Arado Ar 80, with its "gull" wing (replaced with a straight, tapered wing on the V3) and fixed, spatted undercarriage was overweight and underpowered and the design was abandoned after three prototypes had been built. The parasol winged Fw 159 was always considered by the Erprobungsstelle (E-Stelle) staff at Travemünde to be a compromise between the biplane and the aerodynamically more efficient low-wing monoplane. Although it had some advanced features, it used a novel undercarriage design which was never truly reliable. [ 11 ]

Initially, the Bf 109 was regarded with suspicion by the E-Stelle test pilots because of its steep ground angle, resulting in poor forward view on the ground the sideways-hinged cockpit canopy, which could not be opened in flight and the automatic wing leading edge slots which, it was thought, would inadvertently open during aerobatics, possibly leading to crashes. They were also concerned about the high wing loading. [ 12 ]

The Heinkel He 112, based on a scaled down Blitz was the favourite of the Luftwaffe leaders. Compared with the Bf 109, it was also cheaper. [ 13 ] Positive aspects of the He 112 included the wide track and robustness of the undercarriage, considerably better visibility from the cockpit, and a lower wing loading that led to easier landings. However, the He 112 was also structurally complicated, being some 18% heavier than the Bf 109, and it soon became clear that the thick wing, which spanned 12.6 m (41 ft 4 in) with an area of 23.2 m 2 (249.7 ft 2 ) on the first prototype (V1), was a disadvantage for a light fighter, decreasing the aircraft's rate of roll and manoeuvrability. Because of its smaller, lighter airframe, the Bf 109 was 30 km/h (19 mph) faster than the He 112 in level flight, and superior in climbing and diving. As a result, the He 112 V4 which was used for the trials had new wings, spanning 11.5 m (37 ft 8.75 in) with an area of 21.6 m 2 (232.5 ft 2 ). In addition, the V4 had a single-piece, clear-view, sliding cockpit canopy and a more powerful Jumo 210Da engine with a modified exhaust system. However, the improvements had not been fully tested and the He 112 V4 could not be demonstrated in accordance with the rules laid down by the Acceptance Commission, giving a distinct advantage to the Bf 109. The Commission ruled in favour of the Bf 109 because of the Messerschmitt test pilot's demonstration of the 109's capabilities during a series of spins, dives, flick rolls and tight turns, throughout which the pilot was in complete control of the aircraft. [ 14 ]

In March, the RLM received news that the British Spitfire had been ordered into production with this information, a quick result to the contest was needed in order to get the winning design into production. On 12 March, they released a document that outlined the results of the contest, Bf 109 Priority Procurement, as a result of which the RLM instructed Heinkel to radically re-design the He 112, while ordering the Bf 109 into production. [ 15 ]


IPMS/USA Reviews

Bf-109E is the most recent addition in Kagero's Monographs Special series. The Casemate information sheet that accompanied the book states that, "This new book gives not only a thorough insight in the development, variants, technical features and camouflage of the "Emil", but also an excellent overview of the aircraft's service with the Luftwaffe." True words!

Modelers vary in their focus for information regarding a subject being modeled, and this publication addresses most, if not all, of those areas of interest.

The text begins with comprehensive coverage of the Bf-109E variants. Detailed black and white images show the characteristics and design differences which separate one "Emil" variant from the next. In these 34 pages, the modeler will find much useful and detailed information that will significantly impact the authenticity of the "E" variant being modeled.

Pages 35-46 cover the design specification of the "E" variants presented on previous pages. The descriptions of these specifications are accompanied by an excellent set of images, taken during the war when the subject matter was "current".

For me, one of the most intriguing and useful sections of this publication covers the evolution of paint schemes used on the "Emil". This section is quite short, covering pages 46 to 50, but it is filled with accurate and historical information. Also the text uses the very familiar RLM color ID numbers that modelers have been using for some years.

The remainder of the text, starting on page 50 and concluding on page 137, provides an in-depth study of the operational history of the "Emil". This section is illustrated by excellent black and white photos, which will be enormously helpful when one wishes to model a particular camouflage pattern or set of markings.

For many modelers, the "gold mine" will be found in the last 40 pages of the book. A series of 3 view drawings are presented, in 1/72 nd scale and 1/48 th scale. Incidentally, there is also a "poster" of drawings, in exquisite detail, in 1/32 nd scale.

The last few pages are filled with full color 3 view drawings of various "Emil"s, a true modeler's delight!

Conclusion: For the modeler who has set a goal of producing an outstanding "Emil" model, this publications is step # 1, even before the kit to be built is chosen. The text will take only about an hour to 90 minutes to read, and the images and drawings will consume additional time and attention, time well spent in preparation for the construction of your favorite "Emil".

This publication is highly recommended for the modeler and the historian. Thanks to Casemate for providing this review sample.


Watch the video: Messerschmitt Bf-109E-4 Emil in 148